Objectives: To describe the neurological phenotype of children with prenatal diagnosis of agenesis of corpus callosum (ACC) and interhemispheric cysts associated with malformations of cortical development (MCD). Methods: We reviewed the neuroimaging, neurologic, EEG, and genetic data of 36 patients (21 males, mean age 7 years) with ACC and interhemispheric cysts. Associations were tested with Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests. Results: According to the 2001 Barkovich classification, we found 4 type 1c (11.1%), 6 type 2a (16.6%), 18 type 2b (50%, 6/18 girls with Aicardi syndrome), and 9 type 2c cysts (22.2%). EEG showed specific epileptic activity in 27/36 patients (75%). Epilepsy was diagnosed in 16 subjects (16/36, 44.4%), including all Aicardi patients, and was associated with cognitive impairment (p = 0.032). Severe intellectual disability and epilepsy were associated with type 2b cysts, always due to Aicardi patients (p < 0.05). After excluding Aicardi patients, all subjects with type 2b cysts had mild neurological phenotype. Patients with 2a and 2c cysts more frequently had normal cognition (83.3% and 62.5% of cases, respectively). Patients with type 1c cyst mostly had mild/moderate cognitive impairment. Severe neurologic deficits were associated with 1c cysts and 2b cysts with Aicardi syndrome (p < 0.05). Multilobar and/or bilateral MCD were associated with severe neurological and epileptic phenotypes (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Once excluded Aicardi syndrome, most patients with ACC and interhemispheric cysts have a mild clinical phenotype characterized by borderline/normal cognition and minor neurological signs. Despite the high prevalence of EEG epileptic abnormalities, epilepsy in these cases is infrequent and usually responsive to antiepileptic drugs.
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|Titolo:||Dissecting the neurological phenotype in children with callosal agenesis, interhemispheric cysts and malformations of cortical development|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|