Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons (MNs). Astrocytes display a toxic phenotype in ALS, which results in MN damage. Glutamate (Glu)-mediated excitotoxicity and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play a pathological role in the disease progression. We previously demonstrated that in vivo genetic ablation or pharmacological modulation of mGluR5 reduced astrocyte activation and MN death, prolonged survival and ameliorated the clinical progression in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS. This study aimed to investigate in vitro the effects of mGluR5 downregulation on the reactive spinal cord astrocytes cultured from adult late symptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice. We observed that mGluR5 downregulation in SOD1(G93A) astrocytes diminished the cytosolic Ca2+ overload under resting conditions and after mGluR5 simulation and reduced the expression of the reactive glial markers GFAP, S100 & beta; and vimentin. In vitro exposure to an anti-mGluR5 antisense oligonucleotide or to the negative allosteric modulator CTEP also ameliorated the altered reactive astrocyte phenotype. Downregulating mGluR5 in SOD1(G93A) mice reduced the synthesis and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 & beta;, IL-6 and TNF-& alpha; and ameliorated the cellular bioenergetic profile by improving the diminished oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis and by lowering the excessive lactate dehydrogenase activity. Most relevantly, mGluR5 downregulation hampered the neurotoxicity of SOD1(G93A) astrocytes co-cultured with spinal cord MNs. We conclude that selective reduction in mGluR5 expression in SOD1(G93A) astrocytes positively modulates the astrocyte reactive phenotype and neurotoxicity towards MNs, further supporting mGluR5 as a promising therapeutic target in ALS.

Genetic Downregulation of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Type 5 Dampens the Reactive and Neurotoxic Phenotype of Adult ALS Astrocytes

Torazza, Carola;Provenzano, Francesca;Gallia, Elena;Cerminara, Maria;Balbi, Matilde;Bonifacino, Tiziana;Tessitore, Sara;Ravera, Silvia;Usai, Cesare;Musante, Ilaria;Puliti, Aldamaria;Milanese, Marco;Bonanno, Giambattista
2023-01-01

Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons (MNs). Astrocytes display a toxic phenotype in ALS, which results in MN damage. Glutamate (Glu)-mediated excitotoxicity and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play a pathological role in the disease progression. We previously demonstrated that in vivo genetic ablation or pharmacological modulation of mGluR5 reduced astrocyte activation and MN death, prolonged survival and ameliorated the clinical progression in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS. This study aimed to investigate in vitro the effects of mGluR5 downregulation on the reactive spinal cord astrocytes cultured from adult late symptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice. We observed that mGluR5 downregulation in SOD1(G93A) astrocytes diminished the cytosolic Ca2+ overload under resting conditions and after mGluR5 simulation and reduced the expression of the reactive glial markers GFAP, S100 & beta; and vimentin. In vitro exposure to an anti-mGluR5 antisense oligonucleotide or to the negative allosteric modulator CTEP also ameliorated the altered reactive astrocyte phenotype. Downregulating mGluR5 in SOD1(G93A) mice reduced the synthesis and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 & beta;, IL-6 and TNF-& alpha; and ameliorated the cellular bioenergetic profile by improving the diminished oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis and by lowering the excessive lactate dehydrogenase activity. Most relevantly, mGluR5 downregulation hampered the neurotoxicity of SOD1(G93A) astrocytes co-cultured with spinal cord MNs. We conclude that selective reduction in mGluR5 expression in SOD1(G93A) astrocytes positively modulates the astrocyte reactive phenotype and neurotoxicity towards MNs, further supporting mGluR5 as a promising therapeutic target in ALS.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1137558
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