ADGRL1 (latrophilin 1), a well-characterized adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, has been implicated in synaptic development, maturation, and activity. However, the role of ADGRL1 in human disease has been elusive. Here, we describe ten individuals with variable neurodevelopmental features including developmental delay, intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders, and epilepsy, all heterozygous for variants in ADGRL1. In vitro, human ADGRL1 variants expressed in neuroblastoma cells showed faulty ligand-induced regulation of intracellular Ca2+ influx, consistent with haploinsufficiency. In vivo, Adgrl1 was knocked out in mice and studied on two genetic backgrounds. On a non-permissive background, mice carrying a heterozygous Adgrl1 null allele exhibited neurological and developmental abnormalities, while homozygous mice were non-viable. On a permissive background, knockout animals were also born at sub-Mendelian ratios, but many Adgrl1 null mice survived gestation and reached adulthood. Adgrl(1-/-) mice demonstrated stereotypic behaviors, sexual dysfunction, bimodal extremes of locomotion, augmented startle reflex, and attenuated pre-pulse inhibition, which responded to risperidone. Ex vivo synaptic preparations displayed increased spontaneous exocytosis of dopamine, acetylcholine, and glutamate, but Adgrl(1-/-) neurons formed synapses in vitro poorly. Overall, our findings
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