Introduction: Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological and medical emergency. It has high mortality and morbidity rates, which typically correlate with seizure semiology and duration; therefore, prompt and proper pharmacological intervention is paramount. In a pre-hospital setting, establishing venous access can be difficult, so other routes of drug administration should be considered. Areas covered: The paper summarizes the data from the literature and provides an evaluation of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam (IM MDZ) as it pertains to the management of acute seizures and SE. Expert opinion: The cascade of events involved in the genesis and sustenance of seizures, if not promptly stopped, lead to the perpetuation of the condition and may contribute to the refractoriness of pharmacological treatment. Hence, non-venous routes for drug administration were developed to allow untrained personnel to rapidly stop seizures. Among benzodiazepines (BDZs), IM MDZ is at least as effective and safe as other intravenously administered BDZs. Moreover, thanks to IM MDZ’s favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile, it is a promising alternative to other non-venous drugs such as intranasal-MDZ, buccal-MDZ, and rectal-diazepam in the pre-hospital management of SE cases with motor features.

Intramuscular Midazolam for treatment of Status Epilepticus

Riva A.;Balagura G.;Striano P.;
2020

Abstract

Introduction: Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological and medical emergency. It has high mortality and morbidity rates, which typically correlate with seizure semiology and duration; therefore, prompt and proper pharmacological intervention is paramount. In a pre-hospital setting, establishing venous access can be difficult, so other routes of drug administration should be considered. Areas covered: The paper summarizes the data from the literature and provides an evaluation of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam (IM MDZ) as it pertains to the management of acute seizures and SE. Expert opinion: The cascade of events involved in the genesis and sustenance of seizures, if not promptly stopped, lead to the perpetuation of the condition and may contribute to the refractoriness of pharmacological treatment. Hence, non-venous routes for drug administration were developed to allow untrained personnel to rapidly stop seizures. Among benzodiazepines (BDZs), IM MDZ is at least as effective and safe as other intravenously administered BDZs. Moreover, thanks to IM MDZ’s favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile, it is a promising alternative to other non-venous drugs such as intranasal-MDZ, buccal-MDZ, and rectal-diazepam in the pre-hospital management of SE cases with motor features.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1021997
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