X-ray Synchrotron radiation-based techniques, in particular Micro-tomography and Micro-diffraction, were exploited to investigate the structure of bone deposited in vivo within a porous ceramic scaffold. Bone formation was studied by implanting Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) seeded ceramic scaffolds in a mouse model. Osteoblasts derived from the seeded MSC and from differentiation of cells migrated within the scaffold together with the blood vessels, deposited within the scaffold pores an organic collagenous matrix on which a precursor mineral amorphous liquid-phase, containing Ca++ and PO 4– crystallized filling the gaps between the collagen molecules. Histology offered a valid instrument to investigate the engineered tissue structure, but, unfortunately, limited itself to a macroscopic analysis. The evolution of the X-ray Synchrotron radiation-based techniques and the combination of micro X-ray diffraction with X-ray phase-contrast imaging enabled to study the dynamic of the structural and morphological changes occurring during the new bone deposition, biomineralization and vascularization. In fact, the unique features of Synchrotron radiation, is providing the high spatial resolution probe which is necessary for the study of complex materials presenting heterogeneity from micron-scale to meso- and nano-scale. Indeed, this is the occurrence in the heterogeneous and hierarchical bone tissue where an organic matter, such as the collagenous matrix, interacts with mineral nano-crystals to generate a hybrid multiscale biomaterial with unique physical properties. In this framework, the use of advanced synchrotron radiation techniques allowed to understand and to clarify fundamental aspects of the bone formation process within the bioceramic, i.e. biomineralization and vascularization, including to obtain deeper knowledge on bone deposition, mineralization and reabsorption in different health, aging and pathological conditions. In this review we present an overview of the X-ray Synchrotron radiation techniques and we provide a general outlook of their applications on bone Tissue Engineering, with a focus on our group work. Statement of Significance: Synchrotron Radiation techniques for Tissue Engineering In this review we report recent applications of X-ray Synchrotron radiation-based techniques, in particular Microtomography and Microdiffraction, to investigations on the structure of ceramic scaffolds and bone tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering has made significant advances in bone regeneration by proposing the use of mesenchymal stem cells in combination with various types of scaffolds. The efficacy of the biomaterials used to date is not considered optimal in terms of resorbability and bone formation, resulting in a poor vascularization at the implant site. The review largely based on our publications in the last ten years could help the study of the regenerative model proposed. We also believe that the new imaging technologies we describe could be a starting point for the development of additional new techniques with the final aim of transferring them to the clinical practice.
|Titolo:||Synchrotron radiation techniques boost the research in bone tissue engineering|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|