Background. The aim of this study was to use real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on blood samples to diagnose and serotype pneumococcal infection in a large cohort of Italian children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Methods. We conducted an observational study from April 2007 through June 2009 of children aged 0-16 years with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia admitted to 83 pediatric hospitals in Italy. Results. Seven hundred fifty-three children were studied. RT-PCR found pneumococcal infection in 80 (10.6%) of 753 patients. In 292 patients, culture and RT-PCR were simultaneously performed. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 47 of 292 patients; 45 (15.4%) tested positive by RT-PCR and 11 (3.8%) tested positive by culture. RT-PCR was significantly more sensitive than culture in revealing bacteremic pneumonia (odds ratio, 30.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.8-97.5; P < .001). Complicated pneumonia was found in 162 (21.5%) of 753 children; 152 (93.8%) of these 162 had parapneumonic effusion, and 51 (33.6%) had empyema. Children with complicated pneumonia were significantly older. Pneumococcal bacteremia was found by RT-PCR to occur significantly more frequently in children with complications (38 [23.5%] of 162) than in children with uncomplicated pneumonia (44 [7.4%] of 591; odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.30-6.30; P < .001). RT-PCR allowed serotyping from blood in 92.5% of patients. More than two-thirds of the pneumonia cases were due to nonpneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 serotypes. Serotype 1 was the most frequent serotype (26 [32.5%] of 80) and was significantly associated with complications (50.0% in patients with complicated pneumonia vs 18.2% in patients with uncomplicated pneumonia; odds ratio, 4.5, 95% confidence interval, 1.48-14.03; P = .005) and older age. Serotype 19A was second in frequency (15.0%) and was significantly associated with younger age. Conclusions. RT-PCR allows diagnosis and serotyping of pneumococcal bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia in children and is an important tool for evaluating serotype distribution in culture-negative samples. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
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|Titolo:||Community-acquired bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in children: Diagnosis and serotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction using blood samples|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|