Background: Intracortical myelin is a key determinant of neuronal synchrony and plasticity that underpin optimal brain function. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilitates the examination of intracortical myelin but presents with methodological challenges. Here we describe a whole-brain approach for the in vivo investigation of intracortical myelin in the human brain using ultra-high field MRI. Methods: Twenty-five healthy adults were imaged in a 7 Tesla MRI scanner using diffusion-weighted imaging and a T 1 -weighted sequence optimized for intracortical myelin contrast. Using an automated pipeline, T 1 values were extracted at 20 depth-levels from each of 148 cortical regions. In each cortical region, T 1 values were used to infer myelin concentration and to construct a non-linearity index as a measure the spatial distribution of myelin across the cortical ribbon. The relationship of myelin concentration and the non-linearity index with other neuroanatomical properties were investigated. Five patients with multiple sclerosis were also assessed using the same protocol as positive controls. Results: Intracortical T 1 values decreased between the outer brain surface and the gray-white matter boundary following a slope that showed a slight leveling between 50% and 75% of cortical depth. Higher-order regions in the prefrontal, cingulate and insular cortices, displayed higher non-linearity indices than sensorimotor regions. Across all regions, there was a positive association between T 1 values and non-linearity indices (P < 10 −5 ). Both T 1 values (P < 10 −5 ) and non-linearity indices (P < 10 −15 ) were associated with cortical thickness. Higher myelin concentration but only in the deepest cortical levels was associated with increased subcortical fractional anisotropy (P = 0.05). Conclusions: We demonstrate the usefulness of an automatic, whole-brain method to perform depth-dependent examination of intracortical myelin organization. The extracted metrics, T 1 values and the non-linearity index, have characteristic patterns across cortical regions, and are associated with thickness and underlying white matter microstructure.
|Titolo:||Depth-dependent intracortical myelin organization in the living human brain determined by in vivo ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|
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|2019Depth-dependent intracortical myelin organization in the living human brain determined by in vivo ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging.pdf||Documento in versione editoriale||Open Access Visualizza/Apri|