Oligonucleotide overloading results in type I interferonopathies such as the Aicardi-Goutiéres Syndrome, a progressive encephalopathy determined by an immune response against endogenous DNA/RNA molecules. No therapy targeting pathogenic mechanisms is available for affected patients. Accordingly, we set up an in vitro/in vivo experimental model aimed at reproducing the pathogenic mechanisms of type I interferonopathies, in order to develop an effective pharmacological modulation and toxicological alterations caused by intracranial delivery of encapsulated CpG. The in vitro model used Aicardi-Goutiéres Syndrome immortalized lymphocytes activated by interferon I and co-cultured with human astrocytes; lymphocyte neurotoxicity was attenuated by the calcineurin-inhibitor Tacrolimus and by the anti-interferon monoclonal antibody Sifalimumab. The in vivo model was set up in mice by subcutaneous injection of encapsulated CpG oligonucleotides; the immune-stimulating activity was demonstrated by cytometric analysis in the spleen. To mime pathogenesis of type I interferonopathies in the central nervous system, CpG oligonucleotides were administered intracranially in mice. In the brain, CpG overload induced a rapid activation of macrophage-like microglial cells and focal accumulation mononuclear cells. The subcutaneous administration of Tacrolimus and, more potently, Sifalimumab attenuated CpG-induced brain alterations. These findings shed light on molecular mechanisms triggered by oligonucleotides to induce brain damage. Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting interferon seem a promising therapeutic strategy to protect brain in type I interferonopathies.

Brain microglia activation induced by intracranial administration of oligonucleotides and its pharmacological modulation

La Maestra, Sebastiano;Micale, Rosanna T;D'Oria, Chiara;Garibaldi, Silvano;Pulliero, Alessandra;Izzotti, Alberto
2018

Abstract

Oligonucleotide overloading results in type I interferonopathies such as the Aicardi-Goutiéres Syndrome, a progressive encephalopathy determined by an immune response against endogenous DNA/RNA molecules. No therapy targeting pathogenic mechanisms is available for affected patients. Accordingly, we set up an in vitro/in vivo experimental model aimed at reproducing the pathogenic mechanisms of type I interferonopathies, in order to develop an effective pharmacological modulation and toxicological alterations caused by intracranial delivery of encapsulated CpG. The in vitro model used Aicardi-Goutiéres Syndrome immortalized lymphocytes activated by interferon I and co-cultured with human astrocytes; lymphocyte neurotoxicity was attenuated by the calcineurin-inhibitor Tacrolimus and by the anti-interferon monoclonal antibody Sifalimumab. The in vivo model was set up in mice by subcutaneous injection of encapsulated CpG oligonucleotides; the immune-stimulating activity was demonstrated by cytometric analysis in the spleen. To mime pathogenesis of type I interferonopathies in the central nervous system, CpG oligonucleotides were administered intracranially in mice. In the brain, CpG overload induced a rapid activation of macrophage-like microglial cells and focal accumulation mononuclear cells. The subcutaneous administration of Tacrolimus and, more potently, Sifalimumab attenuated CpG-induced brain alterations. These findings shed light on molecular mechanisms triggered by oligonucleotides to induce brain damage. Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting interferon seem a promising therapeutic strategy to protect brain in type I interferonopathies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/911577
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