Background The contribution of postchemotherapy pelvic (PLND) or retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) on survival in patients with advanced and metastatic UC is still unclear. Patients and Methods Between September 1986 and May 2012, 157 patients with locally advanced or metastatic UC received first-line chemotherapy consisting of mMVAC (modified methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin), according to our policy. Patients with subdiaphragmatic nodal disease and/or local recurrence only and who experienced at least stable disease (SD) were selected. Fifty-nine patients were identified, 28 of whom underwent surgery, 31 started consolidation chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy or observation. The prognostic effect of candidate factors on survival was evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results A total of 14 PLND and 14 RPLND patients were identified after they had achieved a complete response (CR; n = 7) or a partial response (PR) and SD (n = 21). Median follow-up was 88 months (interquartile range, 24-211 months). Median PFS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 11-not estimated) and 11 (95% CI, 5-19) months, respectively, in favor of the surgical cohort and curves were statistically different (log-rank test, P =.009). In multivariate analysis, postchemotherapy surgery was significantly prognostic for PFS and OS and response to chemotherapy (PR and SD vs. CR) was prognostic for PFS and trended to significance for OS. A model including these 2 factors showed bootstrap-corrected Harrel C statistics for PFS and OS of 0.65 and 0.68, respectively. Conclusion In well selected patients with UC like those who achieved a clinical benefit with chemotherapy and had nodal metastatic disease, there was a survival advantage in removal of disease residuals.
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