The brine shrimp Artemia was used as a model organism to test toxicity of several neuroactive pesticides (chlorpyrifos (CLP), chlorpyrifos oxon (CLP ox), diazinon (DZN), carbaryl (CBR)) following exposure to far below than lethal doses. Cysts were exposed to the pesticides in order to test a scenario similar to actual coastal environment contamination, by analyzing different responses. Cysts were rehydrated in water containing the pesticides at concentrations ranging from 10−11 to 10−5 M, for 72, 96 and 192 h, respectively. For these ex- posure times, morpho-functional and biochemical parameters, such as hatching speed and viability were in- vestigated in the larvae together with cholinesterase (ChE) activity quantification and histochemical localiza- tion. Finally, ChE inhibition was also compared with conventional selective ChE inhibitors. Results showed that CLP ox and CBR caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in hatching speed, fol- lowed by high percentages of larval death, while CLP and DZN were responsible for irregular hatching patterns. In addition, the pesticides mostly caused larval death some days post-hatching, whereas this effect was negligible for the specific ChE inhibitors, suggesting that part of pesticide toxicity may be due to molecules other than the primary target. ChE activity was observed in the protocerebrum lobes, linked to the development of pair eyes. Such activity was inhibited in larvae exposed to all pesticides. When compared to conventional selective inhibitors of ChE activities, this inhibition demonstrated that the selected pesticides mainly affect acetylcholinesterase and, to a lesser extent, pseudocholinesterases. In conclusion, the brine shrimp is a good model to test the environmental toxicity of long term exposure to cholinergic pesticides, since changes in hatching speed, viability and ChE activity were observed.
|Titolo:||Long term exposure to low dose neurotoxic pesticides affects hatching, viability and cholinesterase activity of Artemia sp.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|