Many evaluations have been performed on the economic impact of pneumococcal vaccination in older adults (>64Â y of age) in several countries, including Italy. However, these studies did not include the new data on the effectiveness of 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in the elderly reported by the CAPiTA Study. The aim of the present study was to update our previous budget impact analysis of multi-cohort PCV13 vaccination in adults in Italy by including new scientific evidence. We also compared single-cohort vaccination strategies per year, in order to identify the cohort with the most favorable economic profile, in the event of the multi-cohort approach not being economically sustainable for the National Health System (NHS). The new impact analysis highlights that the vaccination of one, two or three adult cohorts per year in Italy would lead to a considerable reduction in pneumococcal disease and its related costs over 5Â y. The strategies proved cost-effective (ICERs ranging from â¬14,605 to â¬15,412/QALY), i.e. well below the threshold of â¬50,000/QALY. The ICERs were slightly lower than those calculated in the first published analysis and vaccination continued to be economically favorable. In the case of a mono-cohort strategy, the vaccination of 65-year-old subjects, albeit more expensive, proved to be more favorable than the vaccination of 70- or 75-year-old cohorts. Finally, after the inclusion of the recent clinical evidence, the age-based PCV13 vaccination of the elderly in Italy continued to be economically justified from the NHS perspective in the short period. Vaccination of the elderly should therefore be strongly recommended nationwide in Italy.
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