Identification of specific molecular changes (fingerprints) is important to identify cancer etiology. Exploitable biomarkers are related to DNA, epigenetics, and proteins. DNA adducts are the turning point between environmental exposures and biological damage. DNA mutational fingerprints are induced by carcinogens in tumor suppressor and oncogenes. In an epigenetic domain, methylation changes occurs in specific genes for arsenic, benzene, chromium, and cigarette smoke. Alteration of specific microRNA has been reported for environmental carcinogens. Benzo(a)pyrene, cadmium, coal, and wood dust hits specific heat-shock proteins and metalloproteases. The multiple analysis of these biomarkers provides information on the carcinogenic mechanisms activated by exposure to environmental carcinogens.
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