The number of power installations lying underground has been increasing in the last few years, and such devices are very sensitive to the effect of the lightning electromagnetic fields, due to the massive presence of power electronics. As a consequence, the scientific community has devoted much effort in the direction of a more accurate modeling of underground lightning fields and their coupling to cables. The exact expressions of the underground lightning fields have been derived by Sommerfeld decades ago. However, their numerical evaluation has always been a hard task because of the presence of slowly converging improper integrals. In the past, some approximate formulas have been derived, which have been included in field-to-transmission line coupling models to estimate the effect of lightning on buried cables. In this paper, an efficient algorithm for the evaluation of the Sommerfeld expression for underground fields is presented, and its mathematical features are discussed. The numerical treatment of the Sommerfeld integrals is based on a proper subdivision of the integration domain, the application of the Romberg technique, and the definition of a suitable upper bound for the error due to the integral truncation. The remarkable efficiency in terms of CPU time of the developed algorithm makes it possible to use it directly in field-to-buried cable coupling simulation codes. Finally, the developed algorithm is used to test the validity of the Cooray's simplified formula for the computation of underground horizontal electric field. It is shown that predictions of the Cooray's formula are in good agreement with exact solutions for large values of ground conductivity (0.01.S/m). However, for poor conductivities (0.001 S/m or so), Cooray's expression yields less satisfactory results, especially for the late time response. © 2007 IEEE.
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|Titolo:||An algorithm for the exact evaluation of the underground lightning electromagnetic fields|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2007|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|