BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patients have a cumulative lifetime risk of 2%-15% of developing a contralateral metastatic or ex novo primary cancer. From prognostic and therapeutic viewpoints, it is important to differentiate metastatic from second primary. To distinguish these entities, we investigated whether the pattern of X chromosome inactivation could determine whether the two tumors derived from different progenitor cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clonality of bilateral breast cancer was evaluated through the X-inactivation analysis using the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) polymorphism and the histopathologic and molecular results were compared. A different or an identical pattern of X inactivation was considered as indicator of a second primary cancer or not informative, respectively. We considered morphological indicators of a new primary cancer the absence of concordance in the histological type or a better histological differentiation. RESULTS: Ten patients with bilateral breast cancer were evaluated. Morphological criteria indicated that eight were second primary, a conclusion confirmed by the X-inactivation analysis. Two cases classified as recurrence according to morphological criteria were classified as second tumor by molecular analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the HUMARA clonality assay can improve the histological parameters in differentiating metastatic cancer from second primary cancer.

Pathological and molecular characteristics distinguishing contralateral metastatic from new primary breast cancer

GHIORZO, PAOLA;L. DEL MASTRO
2009

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patients have a cumulative lifetime risk of 2%-15% of developing a contralateral metastatic or ex novo primary cancer. From prognostic and therapeutic viewpoints, it is important to differentiate metastatic from second primary. To distinguish these entities, we investigated whether the pattern of X chromosome inactivation could determine whether the two tumors derived from different progenitor cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clonality of bilateral breast cancer was evaluated through the X-inactivation analysis using the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) polymorphism and the histopathologic and molecular results were compared. A different or an identical pattern of X inactivation was considered as indicator of a second primary cancer or not informative, respectively. We considered morphological indicators of a new primary cancer the absence of concordance in the histological type or a better histological differentiation. RESULTS: Ten patients with bilateral breast cancer were evaluated. Morphological criteria indicated that eight were second primary, a conclusion confirmed by the X-inactivation analysis. Two cases classified as recurrence according to morphological criteria were classified as second tumor by molecular analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the HUMARA clonality assay can improve the histological parameters in differentiating metastatic cancer from second primary cancer.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/262802
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