Beta-NAD+e (extracellular beta-NAD+), present at nanomolar levels in human plasma, has been implicated in the regulation of [Ca2+]i (the intracellular calcium concentration) in various cell types, including blood cells, by means of different mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that micromolar NAD+e (both the alpha and the beta extracellular NAD+ forms) induces a sustained [Ca2+]i increase in human granulocytes by triggering the following cascade of causally related events: (i) activation of adenylate cyclase and overproduction of cAMP; (ii) activation of protein kinase A; (iii) stimulation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity and consequent overproduction of cADP-ribose, a universal Ca2+ mobilizer; and (iv) influx of extracellular Ca2+. The NAD+e-triggered [Ca2+]i elevation translates into granulocyte activation, i.e. superoxide and nitric oxide generation, and enhanced chemotaxis in response to 0.1-10 microM NAD+e. Thus extracellular beta-NAD+e behaves as a novel pro-inflammatory cytokine, stimulating human granulocytes and potentially recruiting them at sites of inflammation.
|Titolo:||Extracellular NAD+ regulates intracellular calcium levels and induces activation of human granulocytes|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2006|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|