A number of human diseases are associated with the conversion of proteins from their native state into well defined fibrillar aggregates, depositing in the extracellular space and generally termed amyloid fibrils. Heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan normally present in the extracellular matrix, has been found to be universally associated with amyloid deposits and to promote amyloid fibril formation by all studied protein systems. We have studied the impact of HS on the amyloidogenesis of human muscle acylphosphatase, monitoring the process with an array of techniques, such as normal and stopped-flow far-UV circular dichroism, thioflavin T fluorescence, static and dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The results show that HS accelerates the conversion of the studied protein from the native state into the amyloidogenic, yet monomeric, partially folded state. They also indicate that HS does not simply accelerate the conversion of the resulting partially folded state into amyloid species but splits the process into two distinct pathways occurring in parallel: a very fast phase in which HS interacts with a fraction of protein molecules, causing their rapid aggregation into ThT-positive and beta-sheet containing oligomers, and a slow phase resulting from the normal aggregation of partially folded molecules that cannot interact with HS. The HS-mediated aggregation pathway is several-fold faster than that observed in the absence of HS. Two aggregation phases are generally observed when proteins aggregate in the presence of HS, underlying the importance of a detailed kinetic analysis to fully understand the effect of this glycosaminoglycan on amyloidogenesis.
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|Titolo:||Kinetic analysis of amyloid formation in the presence of heparan sulfate. Faster unfolding and change of pathway.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|