Myeloid cells, including parenchymal microglia, perivascular and meningeal macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), are present in the central nervous system (CNS) and establish an intricate relationship with other cells, playing a crucial role both in health and in neurological diseases. In this context, DCs are critical to orchestrating the immune response linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. Under steady‐state conditions, DCs patrol the CNS, sampling their local environment and acting as sentinels. During neuroinflammation, the resulting activation of DCs is a critical step that drives the inflammatory response or the resolution of inflammation with the participation of different cell types of the immune system (macrophages, mast cells, T and B lymphocytes), resident cells of the CNS and soluble factors. Although the importance of DCs is clearly recognized, their exact function in CNS disease is still debated. In this review, we will discuss modern concepts of DC biology in steady‐state and during autoimmune neuroinflammation. Here, we will also address some key aspects involving DCs in CNS patrolling, highlighting the neuroprotective nature of DCs and emphasizing their therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurological conditions. Recently, inhibition of the NAD+‐dependent deac(et)ylase sirtuin 6 was demonstrated to delay the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, by dampening DC trafficking towards inflamed LNs. Thus, a special focus will be dedicated to sirtuins’ role in DCs functions.

Neuroprotective Potential of Dendritic Cells and Sirtuins in Multiple Sclerosis

Piacente, Francesco;Uccelli, Antonio;Bruzzone, Santina;
2022

Abstract

Myeloid cells, including parenchymal microglia, perivascular and meningeal macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), are present in the central nervous system (CNS) and establish an intricate relationship with other cells, playing a crucial role both in health and in neurological diseases. In this context, DCs are critical to orchestrating the immune response linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. Under steady‐state conditions, DCs patrol the CNS, sampling their local environment and acting as sentinels. During neuroinflammation, the resulting activation of DCs is a critical step that drives the inflammatory response or the resolution of inflammation with the participation of different cell types of the immune system (macrophages, mast cells, T and B lymphocytes), resident cells of the CNS and soluble factors. Although the importance of DCs is clearly recognized, their exact function in CNS disease is still debated. In this review, we will discuss modern concepts of DC biology in steady‐state and during autoimmune neuroinflammation. Here, we will also address some key aspects involving DCs in CNS patrolling, highlighting the neuroprotective nature of DCs and emphasizing their therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurological conditions. Recently, inhibition of the NAD+‐dependent deac(et)ylase sirtuin 6 was demonstrated to delay the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, by dampening DC trafficking towards inflamed LNs. Thus, a special focus will be dedicated to sirtuins’ role in DCs functions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1080388
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