Genomic studies have identified some of the most relevant genetic players in Neuroendocrine Neoplasm (NEN) tumorigenesis. However, we are still far from being able to draw a model that encompasses their heterogeneity, elucidates the different biological effects consequent to the identified molecular events, or incorporates extensive knowledge of molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Here, we reviewed recent insights in NEN tumorigenesis from selected basic research studies on animal models, highlighting novel players in the intergenic cooperation and peculiar mechanisms including splicing dysregulation, chromatin stability, or cell dedifferentiation. Furthermore, models of tumorigenesis based on composite interactions other than a linear progression of events are proposed, exemplified by the involvement in NEN tumorigenesis of genes regulating complex functions, such as MEN1 or DAXX. Although limited by interspecies differences, animal models have proved helpful for the more in-depth study of every facet of tumorigenesis, showing that the identification of driver mutations is only one of the many necessary steps and that other mechanisms are worth investigating.

Insights into mechanisms of tumorigenesis in neuroendocrine neoplasms

Pastorino L.;Grillo F.;Albertelli M.;Ghiorzo P.;Bruno W.
2021

Abstract

Genomic studies have identified some of the most relevant genetic players in Neuroendocrine Neoplasm (NEN) tumorigenesis. However, we are still far from being able to draw a model that encompasses their heterogeneity, elucidates the different biological effects consequent to the identified molecular events, or incorporates extensive knowledge of molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Here, we reviewed recent insights in NEN tumorigenesis from selected basic research studies on animal models, highlighting novel players in the intergenic cooperation and peculiar mechanisms including splicing dysregulation, chromatin stability, or cell dedifferentiation. Furthermore, models of tumorigenesis based on composite interactions other than a linear progression of events are proposed, exemplified by the involvement in NEN tumorigenesis of genes regulating complex functions, such as MEN1 or DAXX. Although limited by interspecies differences, animal models have proved helpful for the more in-depth study of every facet of tumorigenesis, showing that the identification of driver mutations is only one of the many necessary steps and that other mechanisms are worth investigating.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1063255
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