Background: Functional variants of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) could contribute to the pathogenesis of disorders characterized by abnormal T-cell responses. Case Presentation: We report a case of a 13-year-old girl who first presented with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis poorly responsive to treatment. During the following years the patient developed cytopenias, chronic lymphoproliferation, high values of T-cell receptor αβ+CD4-CD8-double-negative T cells and defective Fas-mediated T cells apoptosis. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome was diagnosed and therapy with mycophenolate mofetil was started, with good hematological control. Due to the persistence of active polyarthritis, mycophenolate mofetil was replaced with sirolimus. In the following months the patient developed hypogammaglobulinemia and started having severe diarrhea. Histologically, duodenitis and chronic gastritis were present. Using the next generation sequencing-based gene panel screening, a CTLA4 mutation was detected (p.Cys58Serfs∗13). At the age of 21 the patient developed acute autoimmune hemolytic anemia; steroid treatment in combination with abatacept were started with clinical remission of all symptoms, even arthritis. Conclusions: Targeted immunologic screening and appropriate genetic tests could help in the diagnosis of a specific genetically mediated immune dysregulation syndrome, allowing to select those patients who can take advantage of target therapy, as in the case of abatacept in CTLA4 deficiency.
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