CONTEXT: The etiology of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in children is often unknown. Clinical and radiological features at disease onset do not allow discrimination between idiopathic forms and other conditions or to predict anterior pituitary dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evolution of pituitary stalk (PS) thickening and the pattern of contrast-enhancement in relation with etiological diagnosis and pituitary function. METHODS: We enrolled 39 children with CDI, 29 idiopathic and 10 with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Brain magnetic resonance images taken at admission and during follow-up (332 studies) were examined, focusing on PS thickness, contrast-enhancement pattern, and pituitary gland size; T2-DRIVE and postcontrast T1-weighted images were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventeen of 29 patients (58.6%) with idiopathic CDI displayed "mismatch pattern," consisting in a discrepancy between PS thickness in T2-DRIVE and postcontrast T1-weighted images; neuroimaging findings became stable after its appearance, while "mismatch" appeared in LCH patients after chemotherapy. Patients with larger PS displayed mismatch more frequently (P = 0.003); in these patients, reduction of proximal and middle PS size was documented over time (P = 0.045 and P = 0.006). The pituitary gland was smaller in patients with mismatch (P < 0.0001). Patients with mismatch presented more frequently with at least one pituitary hormone defect, more often growth hormone deficiency (P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: The PS mismatch pattern characterizes patients with CDI, reduced pituitary gland size, and anterior pituitary dysfunction. The association of mismatch pattern with specific underlying conditions needs further investigation. As patients with mismatch show stabilization of PS size, we assume a prognostic role of this peculiar pattern, which could be used to lead follow-up.

Endocrine Outcomes In Central Diabetes Insipidus: the Predictive Value of Neuroimaging "Mismatch Pattern"

Fava D.;Crocco M.;Tortora D.;Patti G.;Rossi A.;Di Iorgi N.;Maghnie M.
2020-01-01

Abstract

CONTEXT: The etiology of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in children is often unknown. Clinical and radiological features at disease onset do not allow discrimination between idiopathic forms and other conditions or to predict anterior pituitary dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evolution of pituitary stalk (PS) thickening and the pattern of contrast-enhancement in relation with etiological diagnosis and pituitary function. METHODS: We enrolled 39 children with CDI, 29 idiopathic and 10 with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Brain magnetic resonance images taken at admission and during follow-up (332 studies) were examined, focusing on PS thickness, contrast-enhancement pattern, and pituitary gland size; T2-DRIVE and postcontrast T1-weighted images were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventeen of 29 patients (58.6%) with idiopathic CDI displayed "mismatch pattern," consisting in a discrepancy between PS thickness in T2-DRIVE and postcontrast T1-weighted images; neuroimaging findings became stable after its appearance, while "mismatch" appeared in LCH patients after chemotherapy. Patients with larger PS displayed mismatch more frequently (P = 0.003); in these patients, reduction of proximal and middle PS size was documented over time (P = 0.045 and P = 0.006). The pituitary gland was smaller in patients with mismatch (P < 0.0001). Patients with mismatch presented more frequently with at least one pituitary hormone defect, more often growth hormone deficiency (P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: The PS mismatch pattern characterizes patients with CDI, reduced pituitary gland size, and anterior pituitary dysfunction. The association of mismatch pattern with specific underlying conditions needs further investigation. As patients with mismatch show stabilization of PS size, we assume a prognostic role of this peculiar pattern, which could be used to lead follow-up.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1023485
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