Chronic kidney disease (CKD) reduces both Klotho expression and its shedding into circulation, an effect that accelerates progression and cardiovascular complications. However, the mechanisms that regulate Klotho release by the human kidney are still unknown. Methods: We measured plasma Klotho across the kidney, splanchnic organs and lung in 22 patients (71 ± 2 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 60 ± 5.4 mL/min 1.73 m2) during elective diagnostic cardiac catheterizations. Results: Although the Klotho average renal vein concentrations were remarkably higher (by ~9%) than arterial values, the kidney removed Klotho (or was at zero balance) in 7 subjects, indicating that the kidney contribution to systemic Klotho is not constant. Klotho fractional enrichment across the kidney was inversely related to plasma sodium (r = 0.43, p = 0.045) and acid uric acid levels (r = 0.38, p = 0.084) and directly, to renal oxygen extraction (r = 0.56, p = 0.006). In multivariate analysis, renal oxygen extraction was the only predictor of the enrichment of Klotho across the kidney, suggesting the dependence of renal Klotho release on tubular hypoxia or oxidative metabolism. Klotho balance was neutral across the lung. In patients with eGFR <60 mL/min, Klotho was also removed by splanchnic organs (single pass fractional extraction ~11%). Conclusions: The present study identifies kidney oxygen uptake as a predictor of Klotho release, and splanchnic organs as a site for Klotho removal. This study provides new understanding of kidney Klotho release and suggests that modulating kidney oxygen metabolism could increase Klotho delivery, as an option to slow disease progression and blunt organ damage.
|Titolo:||The Organ Handling of Soluble Klotho in Humans|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|