All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is now included in many antitumor therapeutic schemes for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia, Kaposi's sarcoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, bladder cancer and neuroblastoma. Unfortunately its poor aqueous solubility hampers its parenteral formulation. To date, there is no parenteral formulation of ATRA commercially available and oral administration of ATRA is associated with progressively diminishing ATRA levels in plasma, which is related to induction of retinoic acid-binding protein and increased drug catabolism by cytochrome P-450-mediated reaction. An ATRA formulation, obtained by complexation of the drug into polymeric micelles, might be suitable for parenteral administration overcoming these unwanted effects. To this purpose we prepared an amphiphilic polymer by polyvinylalcohol (PVA) substitution with oleyl amine at 1.5% substitution degree (mol substituent per 100 mol hydroxyvinylmonomer) and evaluated its functional properties with regard to ATRA complexation. The substituted polymer displayed ability to interact with ATRA both in aqueous solution and in the solid state following spray-drying of drug-polymer hydro-alcoholic solutions. The spray-dried complexes rapidly dissolved in water providing high levels of ATRA solubilization as a function of the drug-polymer weight ratio. The complexes characterized by 1:5 drug-polymer weight ratio provided higher levels of ATRA solubilization than 1:3 and 1:10 drug-polymer weight ratios respectively. Pre-formed polymeric. micelles in water equilibrated in the presence of excess solid ATRA provided the lowest levels of solubilization. The drug release from the complexes was' very slow in PBS, indicating their suitability in antitumor drug targeting where a fundamental requirement is stability towards drug release for at least 24 h, corresponding to the average circulation time period of macromolecular carriers. The cytotoxicity studies against neuroblastoma cell lines outlined increased cytotoxicity of complexed ATRA with respect to free ATRA, likely due to the increased bioavailability of the hydrophobic drug from the complex. We conclude that ATRA entrapped into self-assembling polymer micelles may be a useful parenteral ATRA formulation overcoming the unwanted pharmacological mechanism that lead to acquired retinoid resistance. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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|Titolo:||Modified polyvinylalcohol for encapsulation of all-trans-retinoic acid in polymeric micelles|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|