For mass fabrication of highly-efficient photovoltaic modules based on Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) absorber layers the availability and cost of the critical raw materials In and Ga present a potential bottleneck. The micro-concentrator solar cell concept provides a solution by using micro lenses to concentrate incoming sun light on an array of micro-sized CIGSe solar cells. The challenge is to fabricate CIGSe micro islands in exactly the desired positions using only the required material. Here, we analyze the area-selective electrodeposition of CuInSe 2 into holes in an insulating SiO 2 template layer as a material-efficient fabrication approach. We observe that the deposition process shows a strong dependence on the hole size, with a faster deposition around the hole perimeter. Based on a model developed for electrochemical reactions at ultra-micro electrodes, we develop numerical simulations for the electrochemical deposition process. The simulations consider the changing micro-electrode geometry throughout the deposition process, and provide a reasonable fit to the experimental data. Finally, it is shown that CuInSe 2 micro solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition reach efficiencies of 4.8% under 1 sun, providing a proof-of-concept demonstration meriting further development.

Area-selective electrodeposition of micro islands for CuInSe 2 -based photovoltaics

Colombara, Diego;
2019-01-01

Abstract

For mass fabrication of highly-efficient photovoltaic modules based on Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) absorber layers the availability and cost of the critical raw materials In and Ga present a potential bottleneck. The micro-concentrator solar cell concept provides a solution by using micro lenses to concentrate incoming sun light on an array of micro-sized CIGSe solar cells. The challenge is to fabricate CIGSe micro islands in exactly the desired positions using only the required material. Here, we analyze the area-selective electrodeposition of CuInSe 2 into holes in an insulating SiO 2 template layer as a material-efficient fabrication approach. We observe that the deposition process shows a strong dependence on the hole size, with a faster deposition around the hole perimeter. Based on a model developed for electrochemical reactions at ultra-micro electrodes, we develop numerical simulations for the electrochemical deposition process. The simulations consider the changing micro-electrode geometry throughout the deposition process, and provide a reasonable fit to the experimental data. Finally, it is shown that CuInSe 2 micro solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition reach efficiencies of 4.8% under 1 sun, providing a proof-of-concept demonstration meriting further development.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/942081
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