Non-destructive characterization of both single layers and completed devices are important issues for the development of efficient and low cost Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) modules at high yields. This implies for the need of methodologies suitable for the assessment of optical, electrical, and physico-chemical parameters that are relevant for the final device efficiency and that can be used for quality control and process monitoring at different process steps. In these applications, detection of in-homogeneities in the different layers from large area modules is especially relevant, being the presence of these inhomogeneities responsible for the existing gap between the efficiencies achieved in these technologies at cell and module levels. In this context, this work reviews the different optical methodologies that have been developed in the framework of the SCALENANO European project for the advanced assessment of the different layers in high efficiency electrodeposited – based CIGS devices. This has includes different strategies as those based on Raman scattering, Photoluminescence/Electroluminescence (PL/EL) based techniques and new photoelectrochemical based tools and firstly Raman spectroscopy is very sensitive to both composition and crystal quality parameters that are determining for device efficiency. Use of resonant Raman excitation strategies allows achieving a high sensitivity of the Raman spectra to the analysed features in the different regions of the device. This involves selection of the suitable excitation wavelength (in the broad spectral region from UV to IR) for the resonant Raman excitation of the required layer in the device. The strong increase in the intensity of the Raman peaks related to the use of resonant excitation conditions allows also decreasing the measuring time to times compatible with the implementation of these techniques at online process monitoring level. Analysed parameters include the electrical conductivity of the Al-doped ZnO window layer, the thickness of the CdS buffer layer and the chemical composition (S/(S+Se) relative content) and presence of relevant secondary phases as Cu-poor ordered vacancy compounds in the surface region of the absorbers. In addition PL/EL imaging are powerful techniques that provide direct access to the optoelectronic properties of the materials and devices. Whereas EL is performed using complete devices by injecting current in analogy to the operation of a light emitting diode, PL allows the characterization of bare absorber materials without the need for any functional or contacting layers. Moreover, semiconductor photo-electrochemistry (PEC) is a versatile technique that enables many opto-electronic properties of semiconductors to be determined. Essentially, a semiconductor on a conducting substrate placed in a solution containing redox species forms a Schottky barrier junction. The formation of such a diode enables basic semiconductor properties to be measured such as doping type, doping density, band gap and the flat band position versus the vacuum energy scale. In all these cases, quality control indicators suitable for the advanced assessment of these processes have been identified and validated for the electrodeposition-based processes developed at Nexcis Company.
|Titolo:||Optical methodology for process monitoring of chalcopyrite photovoltaic technologies: Application to low cost Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 electrodeposition based processes|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|
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