Renal proximal tubular cells (PTECs) participate in several mechanisms of innate immunity, express toll‐like receptors (TLRs), and proinflammatory cytokines. Hyperuricemia may be a promoter of inflammation and renal damage. Angiotensin II (Ang II) modulate immune and inflammatory responses in renal tubular cells. With the aim to evaluate the effect of uric acid (UA) and Ang II on oxidative stress and inflammation mediated by toll‐like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation in human PTECs, human kidney 2 (HK2) were incubated for 24 hr with UA (12 mg/dl) and Ang II (10−7 M). HK2 were pretreated with an antagonist of TLR4 (TAK 242), valsartan or losartan. The genic expression of TLR4, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 (MCP1), and Nox4 was quantified with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, proteins were evaluated with Western blot. The incubation of HK2 either with UA or with Ang II determines an increased expression of TLR4, production of proinflammatory cytokines as MCP1 and pro‐oxidants as Nox4 (p < 0.05). TAK 242 attenuates the expression of MCP1 induced both by UA and Ang II. Valsartan attenuated all the effects we described after exposure to Ang II but not those observed after UA exposure. At variance, pretreatment with losartan, which inhibits UA internalization, attenuates the expression of TLR4, MCP1, and Nox4 in cells previously treated with UA, Ang II, and UA plus Ang II. Proinflammatory pathways are induced in an additive manner by UA and Ang II (p < 0.05) and might be mediated by TLR4 in PTECs. Renin– angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) activation, hyperuricemia, and innate immunity interplay in the development of chronic tubular damage and the interaction of several nephrotoxic mechanisms blunt the protective effect of RAAS inhibition.
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|Titolo:||Uric acid and angiotensin II additively promote inflammation and oxidative stress in human proximal tubule cells by activation of toll-like receptor 4.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|