There is increasing evidence that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects have also motor impairments. Toe walking (TW) is a phenomenon that can be found in ASD subjects during gait, even if this condition was found not to be necessarily related only to walking, since these children often also stand and run on their tiptoes. Since persistent TW in ASD subjects may contribute to secondary shortening of the Achilles's tendon, it becomes important to have an assessment tool and/or outcome measure for both the clinical and rehabilitative settings. The aim of this systematic review is to critically evaluate and describe the methods employed to assess toe walking in ASD subjects. The systematic review protocol was previously registered on PROSPERO. We conducted an extensive literature search in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases. There were no restrictions on the types of study design eligible for inclusion. Ten studies were included in the systematic review. Risk of bias of the included studies was conducted using the following instruments depending on the study types: STROBE Statement, Cochrane risk of bias tool, and CARE checklist. Almost all the included studies (8/10) proposed a tip-toe behavior (TTB) assessment only during walking. Nine out of ten of the included studies assessed TTB using a qualitative methodology. The results evidenced the heterogeneity of qualitative methods and a lack of a structured quantitative test to assess toe walking in ASD subjects. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Toe Walking Assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorder Subjects: A Systematic Review

Signori, Alessio;
2018

Abstract

There is increasing evidence that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects have also motor impairments. Toe walking (TW) is a phenomenon that can be found in ASD subjects during gait, even if this condition was found not to be necessarily related only to walking, since these children often also stand and run on their tiptoes. Since persistent TW in ASD subjects may contribute to secondary shortening of the Achilles's tendon, it becomes important to have an assessment tool and/or outcome measure for both the clinical and rehabilitative settings. The aim of this systematic review is to critically evaluate and describe the methods employed to assess toe walking in ASD subjects. The systematic review protocol was previously registered on PROSPERO. We conducted an extensive literature search in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases. There were no restrictions on the types of study design eligible for inclusion. Ten studies were included in the systematic review. Risk of bias of the included studies was conducted using the following instruments depending on the study types: STROBE Statement, Cochrane risk of bias tool, and CARE checklist. Almost all the included studies (8/10) proposed a tip-toe behavior (TTB) assessment only during walking. Nine out of ten of the included studies assessed TTB using a qualitative methodology. The results evidenced the heterogeneity of qualitative methods and a lack of a structured quantitative test to assess toe walking in ASD subjects. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/925069
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