In stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, the role of the STED beam is to de-excite, via stimulated emission, the fluorophores that have been previously excited by the excitation beam. This condition, together with specific beam intensity distributions, allows obtaining true sub-diffraction spatial resolution images. However, if the STED beam has a non-negligible probability to excite the fluorophores, a strong fluorescent background signal (anti-Stokes emission) reduces the effective resolution. For STED scanning microscopy, different synchronous detection methods have been proposed to remove this anti-Stokes emission background and recover the resolution. However, every method works only for a specific STED microscopy implementation. Here we present a user-friendly synchronous detection method compatible with any STED scanning microscope. It exploits a data acquisition (DAQ) card based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which is progressively used in STED microscopy. In essence, the FPGA-based DAQ card synchronizes the fluorescent signal registration, the beam deflection, and the excitation beam interruption, providing a fully automatic pixel-by-pixel synchronous detection method. We validate the proposed method in both continuous wave and pulsed STED microscope systems.

Removal of anti-Stokes emission background in STED microscopy by FPGA-based synchronous detection

Castello, M.;Coto Hernández, I.;Diaspro, A.;Vicidomini, G.
2017

Abstract

In stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, the role of the STED beam is to de-excite, via stimulated emission, the fluorophores that have been previously excited by the excitation beam. This condition, together with specific beam intensity distributions, allows obtaining true sub-diffraction spatial resolution images. However, if the STED beam has a non-negligible probability to excite the fluorophores, a strong fluorescent background signal (anti-Stokes emission) reduces the effective resolution. For STED scanning microscopy, different synchronous detection methods have been proposed to remove this anti-Stokes emission background and recover the resolution. However, every method works only for a specific STED microscopy implementation. Here we present a user-friendly synchronous detection method compatible with any STED scanning microscope. It exploits a data acquisition (DAQ) card based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which is progressively used in STED microscopy. In essence, the FPGA-based DAQ card synchronizes the fluorescent signal registration, the beam deflection, and the excitation beam interruption, providing a fully automatic pixel-by-pixel synchronous detection method. We validate the proposed method in both continuous wave and pulsed STED microscope systems.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/919200
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