The autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) is a transcription factor expressed both in the thymus, by medullary thymic epithelial cells, and in secondary lymphoid organs. AIRE controls the local transcription of organ- specific proteins typically expressed in peripheral tissues, thus allowing the negative selection of self- reactive T cells. The crucial role played by AIRE in central immune tolerance emerged in the studies on the pathogenesis of Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy, a rare inherited polyendocrine/autoimmune disease. Thereafter, several studies found evidences indicating that AIRE impairment might be pathogenically involved in several autoimmune diseases and in tumorigenesis. In this review, we focus on recent advances relative to AIRE's effect on T cell development in physiology and disease. In particular, we address the following issues: 1) AIRE function and mTECs biology, 2) the impact of AIRE gene mutations in autoimmune diseases, and 3) the role of AIRE gene in anti-tumor immune response.

Beyond APECED: An update on the role of the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) in physiology and disease

Conteduca, Giuseppina;Indiveri, Francesco;Filaci, Gilberto;Negrini, Simone
2018

Abstract

The autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) is a transcription factor expressed both in the thymus, by medullary thymic epithelial cells, and in secondary lymphoid organs. AIRE controls the local transcription of organ- specific proteins typically expressed in peripheral tissues, thus allowing the negative selection of self- reactive T cells. The crucial role played by AIRE in central immune tolerance emerged in the studies on the pathogenesis of Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy, a rare inherited polyendocrine/autoimmune disease. Thereafter, several studies found evidences indicating that AIRE impairment might be pathogenically involved in several autoimmune diseases and in tumorigenesis. In this review, we focus on recent advances relative to AIRE's effect on T cell development in physiology and disease. In particular, we address the following issues: 1) AIRE function and mTECs biology, 2) the impact of AIRE gene mutations in autoimmune diseases, and 3) the role of AIRE gene in anti-tumor immune response.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/919132
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