Articular chondrocytes derived from osteoarthritic tissues (OA HAC) show a severely reduced chondrogenic commitment. This impairment undermines their use for tissue-engineered cartilage repair, which relies on cell proliferation and growth to meet therapeutic needs, but also on efficient cell plasticity to recover the chondrogenic phenotype. Reversine (Rev), a 2,6-disubstituted purine inhibitor of spindle-assembly checkpoints, was described to convert differentiated mesenchymal cells to their undifferentiated precursors. We hypothesized that Rev exposure could divert OA HAC to more plastic cells, re-boosting their subsequent commitment. HAC were enzymatically released from OA cartilage specimens, expanded for 2 weeks and treated with 5 μm Rev in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) or with DMSO alone for 6 days. Cell growth was assessed using the AlamarBlueTM assay. Cytoskeletal structure, endoproliferation and caspase-3-immunopositivity were assayed by epifluorescence microscopy. The OA HAC chondrogenic performance was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Sox9, Aggrecan (Agg), type II collagen (Col2), Ki67, cyclinD1, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), -2 and -3, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and -6 , SMAD3 and -7, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Rev-treated OA HAC recovered polygonal morphology and reduced Ki67 expression and proliferation. Cell-cycle impairment accounted for altered cytoskeletal organization, endoproliferation and apoptosis, whereas a compensatory mechanism sustained the increased cyclinD1 transcript levels. Sox9, Agg and TGFs were overexpressed, but not Col2. IL transcripts were massively downregulated. These events were dose-related and transient. Overall, in spite of a higher Rev-induced transcriptional activity for extracellular matrix components and in spite of a Rev-treated cell phenotype closer to that of the three-dimensional native articular chondrocyte, Rev effects seem unleashed from a full regained chondrogenic potential.
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|Titolo:||Exposure to reversine affects the chondrocyte morphology and phenotype in vitro|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|