Cardiovascular disease (CD) is a major burden for Western society. Regenerative medicine has provided encouraging results, yet it has not addressed the focal defects causing CD and mainly related to the inefficient repair programme of the heart. In this scenario, stem cells have been broadly investigated and their paracrine effect proposed as a possible working strategy to boost endogenous mechanisms of repair and regeneration from within the cardiac tissue.The scientific community is now focusing on identifying the most effective stem cell secretome, as the whole of bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles secreted by stem cells and endowed with regenerative potential. Indeed, the adult stem cell-paracrine potential for cardiac regeneration have been widely analyzed with positive outcome. Nevertheless, low yield, invasive sampling and controversial self-renewal may limit adult stem cell application. On the contrary, fetal and perinatal stem cells, which can be easily isolated from leftover sample via prenatal screening during gestation or as clinical waste material after birth, can offer an ideal alternative. These broadly multipotent immature progenitors share features with both adult and embryonic stem cells, show high self-renewal, but they are not tumorigenic neither cause any ethical concern. While fetal and perinatal stem cells demonstrated to improve cardiac function when injected in the injured heart, the comprehensive characterization of their secretome for future applications is still at its infancy.In this review, we will discuss the paracrine potential of the fetal and perinatal stem cell secretome to provide cardiac repair and resurge the dormant mechanisms of cardiac regeneration for future therapy.

Fetal and perinatal stem cells in cardiac regeneration: Moving forward to the paracrine era

BALBI, CAROLINA;BOLLINI, SVEVA
2017-01-01

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CD) is a major burden for Western society. Regenerative medicine has provided encouraging results, yet it has not addressed the focal defects causing CD and mainly related to the inefficient repair programme of the heart. In this scenario, stem cells have been broadly investigated and their paracrine effect proposed as a possible working strategy to boost endogenous mechanisms of repair and regeneration from within the cardiac tissue.The scientific community is now focusing on identifying the most effective stem cell secretome, as the whole of bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles secreted by stem cells and endowed with regenerative potential. Indeed, the adult stem cell-paracrine potential for cardiac regeneration have been widely analyzed with positive outcome. Nevertheless, low yield, invasive sampling and controversial self-renewal may limit adult stem cell application. On the contrary, fetal and perinatal stem cells, which can be easily isolated from leftover sample via prenatal screening during gestation or as clinical waste material after birth, can offer an ideal alternative. These broadly multipotent immature progenitors share features with both adult and embryonic stem cells, show high self-renewal, but they are not tumorigenic neither cause any ethical concern. While fetal and perinatal stem cells demonstrated to improve cardiac function when injected in the injured heart, the comprehensive characterization of their secretome for future applications is still at its infancy.In this review, we will discuss the paracrine potential of the fetal and perinatal stem cell secretome to provide cardiac repair and resurge the dormant mechanisms of cardiac regeneration for future therapy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/863487
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