Despite the use of antibiotics and vaccines, the frequency of respiratory tract infections is still high and these infections interest a wide range of patients, from children to aged people, including in particular these extreme categories because of the deficiency of their immune system, due to immaturity in the former case and to "immunosenescence" in the latter. For that reason immunostimulant drugs are getting more important to prevent and to attenuate infections. Pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4carboxylic acid) is a synthetic dipeptide with immunomodulatory properties. We reviewed studies conducted on different categories of patients, with particular attention on children and senile patients suffering from recurrent respiratory tract infections, associated, or not, with asthma or COPD. The outcomes considered are both clinical and laboratory parameters. The common end-point of these studies is that Pidotimod has an immunomodulatory activity which is able both to improve the clinical conditions of patients and to enhance and stimulate their immunity cells (lymphocytes but not only) functions acting on adaptive and innate immunity. Pidotimod is also able to increase the concentration of salivary IgA directed against bacteria; furthermore, it can modulate airway epithelial cells functions up-regulating the expression of toll-like receptors and acting on adhesion molecules. According to studies conducted on patients with atopic asthma, it seems that Pidotimod could affect T-lymphocytes balance with a possible addictional anti-allergic activity. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated an improvement of FEV1 and PEF in asthmatic patients treated with Pidotimod. Main clinical outcomes are the reduction of the number of infectious episodes, lesser severity of signs and symptoms and, consequently, a reduction in use of antibiotics and symptomatic drugs, less working and school days lost, less mortality and morbidity. The studies considered give positive results, confirming Pidotimod's efficacy. Furthermore, many studies show a good safety profile of the drug, without recording serious adverse events and mutagenic potential, and a very low incidence of side effects. Pidotimod is also a more safe solution in patients subjected to vaccination, if compared to lyophilized polibacterial, which can't be administered for thirty days before vaccination.
|Titolo:||Pidotimod: The state of art|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|