The purpose of this work was to investigate the expression of glutamine synthase (GS), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione transferase (GST) in the aqueous humor of patients with primary open angle glaucoma and controls. Aqueous humor proteome was analyzed by antibody microarray. The expression of tested proteins was detected by protein Cy3/Cy5 labeling, column purification and hybridization on antibody-spotted glass microarray. Fluorescent signals were detected by fluorescence laser scanning. Aqueous humor levels of SOD as well as of GST were significantly lower (2.0- and 2.2-fold, p < 0.01) among patients than controls; both NOS and GS expression were significantly higher (2.2- and 2.6 fold, p < 0.01) among patients than controls. Our data showed substantial differences of GS, NOS2, SOD and GST aqueous humor levels between glaucomatous patients and controls as measured by antibody microarray technology. The overproduction of NO through inducible NOS can form toxic products and change the metabolic conditions of the TM. The GS over-expression might be related to neuronal injury or to the potential role of glutamate as a modulator in the ciliary body signaling. The reduced expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GST could aggravate the unbalance between both oxygen- and nitrogen-derived free radicals production and detoxification. Based on our results, GS, NOS2, SOD and GST as measured by antibody microarray technology may be useful oxidative markers in aqueous humor of glaucomatous patients.
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