Objective: We report a case of uterine leiomyosarcoma occurring after uterine artery embolization and review the previously published cases. We estimate the incidence of sarcoma after UAE, the mean diagnostic delay in young women undergoing this procedure and review the potential and limits of preoperative procedures in diagnosing uterine sarcomas. Case report: A 35-year-old woman had an early failure after UAE. She underwent surgery 13 months after the procedure. Final pathologic report was consistent with uterine leiomyosarcoma. Conclusion: Incidence of uterine sarcomas after UAE is low, probably similar to that of misdiagnosed leiomyosarcomas in women undergoing surgery for presumed symptomatic leiomyomas. Therefore a relation between the procedure and the malignancy seems to be very unlikely. Diagnostic delay in menstruated women younger than 50 undergoing UAE for presumed symptomatic leiomyoma ranges between 13 and 15 months. The safest procedure for women who fail the conservative management of leiomyoma with UAE is surgical, allowing for definitive pathologic exclusion of malignancy.
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