Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-encoded transactivator of transcription (Tat) potentiated the depolarization-evoked exocytosis of [3H]D-aspartate ([3H]D-ASP) from human neocortical terminals. The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) 1 receptor antagonist 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester (CPCCOEt) prevented this effect, whereas the mGlu5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP) was ineffective. Western blot analysis showed that human neocortex synaptosomes possess mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptors. Tat potentiated the K1-evoked release of [3H]D-ASP or of endogenous glutamate from mouse neocortical synaptosomes in a CPCCOEtsensitive and MPEP-insensitive manner. Deletion of mGlu1 receptors (crv4/crv4 mice) or mGlu5 receptors (mGlu52/2mouse) silenced Tat effects. Tat enhanced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in human and mouse neocortical synaptosomes, consistent with the involvement of group I mGlu receptors. Tat inhibited the K1-evoked release of [3H]g-aminobutyric acid ([3H]GABA) from human synaptosomes and that of endogenous GABA or [3H]GABA from mouse nerve terminals; the inhibition was insensitive to CPCCOEt or MPEP. Tatinduced effects were retained by Tat37--72 but not by Tat48--85. In mouse neocortical slices, Tat facilitated the K1- and the veratridineinduced release of [3H]D-ASP in a CPCCOEt-sensitive manner and was ineffective in crv4/crv4 mouse slices. These observations are relevant to the comprehension of the pathophysiological effects of Tat in central nervous system and may suggest new potential therapeutic approaches to the cure of HIV-1--associated dementia.
|Titolo:||The HIV-1 Viral Protein Tat Increases Glutamate and Decreases GABA Exocytosis from Human and Mouse Neocortical Nerve Endings. The HIV-1 Viral Protein Tat Increases Glutamate and Decreases GABA Exocytosis from Human and Mouse Neocortical Nerve Endings.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|