The effect of exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos on the larval stages of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Euechinoidea) up to metamorphosis was investigated with the aim to identify novel risk biomarkers and a new promising model for toxicity tests. The planktonic sea urchin larvae have the ability to undergo a variable exploratory period, up to the choice of a suitable substrate for adult benthonic life. The juvenile bud (called rudiment) is built inside the larval body that, on environmental cues represented by a variety of signal molecules, is reabsorbed by apoptosis and releases the juvenile on the substrate. In this dialogue between larvae and environment, contaminants interfere with the signals reception, and may alter in dose-dependent way the correct regulation of environment-larva-rudiment interaction. Such interaction is shown by larval plasticity, i.e. the ability of the larva to change body proportions according to the environmental conditions. When exposed to low doses of chlorpyriphos (10-7 to 10-10 M) since 2-days after fertilization, the larvae showed altered size and shape, but all reached the metamorphosis at the same time as controls, and in the same percentage. Exposures to high concentrations such as 10-4 to 10-6 M since 2-days after fertilization did not allow larval growth and differentiation. Exposures at later stages caused reabsorption of larval structures within a few hours and precocious release of the immature rudiments, followed by death of the juveniles. Although the mechanism of chlorpyriphos toxicity in sea urchin larvae is still rather unclear, the measurable stress biomarkers can constitute the basis for new toxicity tests.
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|Titolo:||Dose-dependent effects of chlorpyriphos, an organophosphate pesticide, on metamorphosis of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|