Simulation of a process by means of physical models at a reduced scale is an essential tool in many application, allowing to perform a large number of experimental runs, so as to obtain a quantitative representation of the involved phenomena, at relatively low cost. Some difficulties can arise when the mathematical model derived from the simulation is applied to a real scale problem, in that the scaling of some empirical coefficients with the system size is not obvious at all. As fluid barrier scaling is a difficult task, still not deeply investigated in the scientific literature, the focus of this study is to translate knowledge from research on this topic into practice for industrial application. Following an extensive and accurate experimental work in wind tunnel, the main parameters determining the effectiveness of containment, absorption and dilution of chlorine releases were determined and a mathematical model is developed. In order to frame proper scale-up strategies, the most important result of this study rests on the explicit formulae giving, as a function of the aforesaid parameters, the single pass efficiency, the global absorption efficiency, and the toxic gas concentration downwind the barrier. In the far field, the gas concentration is practically determined only by the rate of atmospheric dispersion of the mass flow-rate of gas escaping the abatement. The absorption efficiencies are related to the drop size and to the mass transfer coefficients in the gas and liquid phases. The mean drop diameter plays an essential role in the absorption efficiency, since it simultaneously acts on air entrainment, interfacial surface and mass transfer coefficient in the gas phase. The evaluation of the mitigation effect for an industrial installation requires the scaling of the entrainment coefficient experimentally determined from wind tunnel testing. All the scaling criteria needed for adapting the proposed model to the design of a spray curtain suitable for the protection from a chlorine release, are amply discussed presenting some carefully designed simulations. Owing to its rather general structure, the model can be applied to different gaseous releases and/or absorbing solutions, provided that proper values of the parameters related with the chemical and physical absorption of the involved substances be theoretically or experimentally obtained in advance.

From laboratory simulation to scale-up and design of spray barriers mitigating toxic gaseous releases

PALAZZI, EMILIO;CURRO', FABIO;FABIANO, BRUNO
2009

Abstract

Simulation of a process by means of physical models at a reduced scale is an essential tool in many application, allowing to perform a large number of experimental runs, so as to obtain a quantitative representation of the involved phenomena, at relatively low cost. Some difficulties can arise when the mathematical model derived from the simulation is applied to a real scale problem, in that the scaling of some empirical coefficients with the system size is not obvious at all. As fluid barrier scaling is a difficult task, still not deeply investigated in the scientific literature, the focus of this study is to translate knowledge from research on this topic into practice for industrial application. Following an extensive and accurate experimental work in wind tunnel, the main parameters determining the effectiveness of containment, absorption and dilution of chlorine releases were determined and a mathematical model is developed. In order to frame proper scale-up strategies, the most important result of this study rests on the explicit formulae giving, as a function of the aforesaid parameters, the single pass efficiency, the global absorption efficiency, and the toxic gas concentration downwind the barrier. In the far field, the gas concentration is practically determined only by the rate of atmospheric dispersion of the mass flow-rate of gas escaping the abatement. The absorption efficiencies are related to the drop size and to the mass transfer coefficients in the gas and liquid phases. The mean drop diameter plays an essential role in the absorption efficiency, since it simultaneously acts on air entrainment, interfacial surface and mass transfer coefficient in the gas phase. The evaluation of the mitigation effect for an industrial installation requires the scaling of the entrainment coefficient experimentally determined from wind tunnel testing. All the scaling criteria needed for adapting the proposed model to the design of a spray curtain suitable for the protection from a chlorine release, are amply discussed presenting some carefully designed simulations. Owing to its rather general structure, the model can be applied to different gaseous releases and/or absorbing solutions, provided that proper values of the parameters related with the chemical and physical absorption of the involved substances be theoretically or experimentally obtained in advance.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/227464
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