The aim of this study was an in vitro investigation of the Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) enzymatic activity related to different surface treatments applied to ten implant systems in order to assess if the interaction between cells and implant (osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation) was influenced by the surface structure and/or surface composition of the fixture. The originality of this study was that all implants were tested as manufactured for clinical use. The implant systems object of this study divided by the surface treatment were the following: Machined: Mk III Branemark; Sandblasted: Ankylos, Silhouette and Galant (experimental fixture); Etched: Osseotite, Mac System,MK 4 (experimental fixture), ITI; Oxided: Ti Unite, Pilot. We used Sa-OS2 cultured osteoblasts and we analyzed n14 fixtures for each implant system (n11 fixture for the cellular growth curve and n13 fixtures for the ALP activity). After 14 days the assay for the ALP activity was carried out according to Wataha et al. (JBMR, 1997) After the cellular growth evaluation in a Burker’s hemocytometer chamber we quantify by a spectrophotometer at 405nm the absorbance value for each sample (the absorbance value indicate the amount of the conversion by ALP of the P-Nitro-Phenyl-Phosphate into P-Nitro-Phenol) and we corrected the mean value for cell number determined before. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Post hoc Scheffe` Test. Within the limits of the in vitro investigations we can conclude that: The etched surfaces shown more cellular growth than others. The sandblasted surfaces shown the smallest amount of cellular proliferation but a very high differentiation (according to Postiglione et al 2003 that found an inverse correlation between the two factors) We found a statistically significant difference in ALP activity only between oxided and etched surfaces (p < 0.05) The sandblasted and oxided surfaces shown more osteoblastic differentiation (more ALP enzymatic activity) Themachined surface is competitive, as regard the osteoblastic differentiation, with the rougher surfaces. Actually it’s still difficult to recommend a particular rougher surface.
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