Despite considerable advancement of first choice treatment (pharmacological, physical therapy, etc.) over many decades, neurological disorders still represent a major portion of the worldwide disease burden. Particularly concerning, the trend is that this scenario will worsen given an ever expanding and aging population. The many different methods of brain stimulation (electrical, magnetic, etc.) are, on the other hand, one of the most promising alternatives to mitigate the suffering of patients and families when conventional treatment fall short of delivering efficacious treatment. With applications in virtually all neurological conditions, neurostimulation has seen considerable success in providing relief of symptoms. On the other hand, a large variability of therapeutic outcomes has also been observed, particularly in the usage of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) modalities. Borrowing inspiration and concepts from its pharmacological counterpart and empowered by unprecedented neurotechnological advancement, the neurostimulation field has seen in recent years a widespread of methods aimed at the personalization of its parameters, based on biomarkers of the individuals being treated. The rationale is that, by taking into account important factors influencing the outcome, personalized stimulation can yield a much-improved therapy. Here, we review the literature to delineate the state-of-the-art of personalized stimulation, while also considering the important aspects of the type of informing parameter (anatomy, function, hybrid), invasiveness, and level of development (pre-clinical experimentation versus clinical trials). Moreover, by reviewing relevant literature on closed loop neuroengineering solutions in general and on activity dependent stimulation method in particular, we put forward the idea that improved personalization may be achieved when the method is able to track in real time brain dynamics and adjust its stimulation parameters accordingly. We conclude that such approaches have great potential of promoting the recovery of lost functions and enhance the quality of life for patients.

Personalized strategies of neurostimulation: from static biomarkers to dynamic closed-loop assessment of neural function

Chiappalone, Michela;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Despite considerable advancement of first choice treatment (pharmacological, physical therapy, etc.) over many decades, neurological disorders still represent a major portion of the worldwide disease burden. Particularly concerning, the trend is that this scenario will worsen given an ever expanding and aging population. The many different methods of brain stimulation (electrical, magnetic, etc.) are, on the other hand, one of the most promising alternatives to mitigate the suffering of patients and families when conventional treatment fall short of delivering efficacious treatment. With applications in virtually all neurological conditions, neurostimulation has seen considerable success in providing relief of symptoms. On the other hand, a large variability of therapeutic outcomes has also been observed, particularly in the usage of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) modalities. Borrowing inspiration and concepts from its pharmacological counterpart and empowered by unprecedented neurotechnological advancement, the neurostimulation field has seen in recent years a widespread of methods aimed at the personalization of its parameters, based on biomarkers of the individuals being treated. The rationale is that, by taking into account important factors influencing the outcome, personalized stimulation can yield a much-improved therapy. Here, we review the literature to delineate the state-of-the-art of personalized stimulation, while also considering the important aspects of the type of informing parameter (anatomy, function, hybrid), invasiveness, and level of development (pre-clinical experimentation versus clinical trials). Moreover, by reviewing relevant literature on closed loop neuroengineering solutions in general and on activity dependent stimulation method in particular, we put forward the idea that improved personalization may be achieved when the method is able to track in real time brain dynamics and adjust its stimulation parameters accordingly. We conclude that such approaches have great potential of promoting the recovery of lost functions and enhance the quality of life for patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1173599
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