Carbon perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs), using carbon-based counter electrodes (C-CEs), promise to mitigate instability issues while providing solution-processed and low-cost device configurations. In this work, we report the fabrication and characterization of efficient paintable C-PSCs obtained by depositing a low-temperature-processed graphene-based carbon paste atop prototypical mesoscopic and planar n-i-p structures. Small-area (0.09 cm(2)) mesoscopic C-PSCs reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.81% while showing an improved thermal stability under the ISOS-D-2 protocol compared to the reference devices based on Au CEs. The proposed graphene-based C-CEs are applied to large-area (1 cm(2)) mesoscopic devices and low-temperature-processed planar n-i-p devices, reaching PCEs of 13.85 and 14.06%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these PCE values are among the highest reported for large-area C-PSCs in the absence of back-contact metallization or additional stacked conductive components or a thermally evaporated barrier layer between the charge-transporting layer and the C-CE (strategies commonly used for the record-high efficiency C-PSCs). In addition, we report a proof-of-concept of metallized miniwafer-like area C-PSCs (substrate area = 6.76 cm(2), aperture area = 4.00 cm(2)), reaching a PCE on active area of 13.86% and a record-high PCE on aperture area of 12.10%, proving the metallization compatibility with our C-PSCs. Monolithic wafer-like area C-PSCs can be feasible all-solution-processed configurations, more reliable than prototypical perovskite solar (mini)modules based on the serial connection of subcells, since they mitigate hysteresis-induced performance losses and hot-spot-induced irreversible material damage caused by reverse biases.

Low-Temperature Graphene-Based Paste for Large-Area Carbon Perovskite Solar Cells

Mariani, P.;Najafi, L.;Bianca, G.;Gabatel, L.;Di Carlo, A.;Bellani, S.;Bonaccorso, F.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Carbon perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs), using carbon-based counter electrodes (C-CEs), promise to mitigate instability issues while providing solution-processed and low-cost device configurations. In this work, we report the fabrication and characterization of efficient paintable C-PSCs obtained by depositing a low-temperature-processed graphene-based carbon paste atop prototypical mesoscopic and planar n-i-p structures. Small-area (0.09 cm(2)) mesoscopic C-PSCs reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.81% while showing an improved thermal stability under the ISOS-D-2 protocol compared to the reference devices based on Au CEs. The proposed graphene-based C-CEs are applied to large-area (1 cm(2)) mesoscopic devices and low-temperature-processed planar n-i-p devices, reaching PCEs of 13.85 and 14.06%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these PCE values are among the highest reported for large-area C-PSCs in the absence of back-contact metallization or additional stacked conductive components or a thermally evaporated barrier layer between the charge-transporting layer and the C-CE (strategies commonly used for the record-high efficiency C-PSCs). In addition, we report a proof-of-concept of metallized miniwafer-like area C-PSCs (substrate area = 6.76 cm(2), aperture area = 4.00 cm(2)), reaching a PCE on active area of 13.86% and a record-high PCE on aperture area of 12.10%, proving the metallization compatibility with our C-PSCs. Monolithic wafer-like area C-PSCs can be feasible all-solution-processed configurations, more reliable than prototypical perovskite solar (mini)modules based on the serial connection of subcells, since they mitigate hysteresis-induced performance losses and hot-spot-induced irreversible material damage caused by reverse biases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1157133
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