Background and objectives: alemtuzumab is a monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody acting on B and T cells in highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). We analyzed changes in lymphocyte subsets after alemtuzumab administration in relation to disease activity and autoimmune adverse events. Methods: lymphocyte subset counts were assessed longitudinally using linear mixed models. Subset counts at baseline and during follow-up were correlated with relapse rate, adverse events, or magnetic resonance (MRI) activity. Results: we recruited 150 patients followed for a median of 2.7 years (IQR: 1.9-3.7). Total lymphocytes, CD4, CD8, and CD20 significantly decreased in all patients over 2 years (p < 0.001). Previous treatment with fingolimod increased the risk of disease activity and adverse events (p = 0.029). We found a higher probability of disease reactivation in males and in patients with over three active lesions at baseline. Higher EDSS scores at baseline and longer disease duration predicted the switch to other treatments after alemtuzumab. Discussion and conclusions: Our real-world study supports data from clinical trials in which lymphocyte subsets were not useful for predicting disease activity or autoimmune disease during treatment. The early use of an induction therapy such as alemtuzumab in patients with a lower EDSS score and short history of disease could mitigate the risk of treatment failure.

Background and objectives: alemtuzumab is a monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody acting on B and T cells in highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). We analyzed changes in lymphocyte subsets after alemtuzumab administration in relation to disease activity and autoimmune adverse events. Methods: lymphocyte subset counts were assessed longitudinally using linear mixed models. Subset counts at baseline and during follow-up were correlated with relapse rate, adverse events, or magnetic resonance (MRI) activity. Results: we recruited 150 patients followed for a median of 2.7 years (IQR: 1.9-3.7). Total lymphocytes, CD4, CD8, and CD20 significantly decreased in all patients over 2 years (p < 0.001). Previous treatment with fingolimod increased the risk of disease activity and adverse events (p = 0.029). We found a higher probability of disease reactivation in males and in patients with over three active lesions at baseline. Higher EDSS scores at baseline and longer disease duration predicted the switch to other treatments after alemtuzumab. Discussion and conclusions: Our real-world study supports data from clinical trials in which lymphocyte subsets were not useful for predicting disease activity or autoimmune disease during treatment. The early use of an induction therapy such as alemtuzumab in patients with a lower EDSS score and short history of disease could mitigate the risk of treatment failure.

Alemtuzumab-Related Lymphocyte Subset Dynamics and Disease Activity or Autoimmune Adverse Events: Real-World Evidence

Sormani M. P.;Signori A.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background and objectives: alemtuzumab is a monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody acting on B and T cells in highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). We analyzed changes in lymphocyte subsets after alemtuzumab administration in relation to disease activity and autoimmune adverse events. Methods: lymphocyte subset counts were assessed longitudinally using linear mixed models. Subset counts at baseline and during follow-up were correlated with relapse rate, adverse events, or magnetic resonance (MRI) activity. Results: we recruited 150 patients followed for a median of 2.7 years (IQR: 1.9-3.7). Total lymphocytes, CD4, CD8, and CD20 significantly decreased in all patients over 2 years (p < 0.001). Previous treatment with fingolimod increased the risk of disease activity and adverse events (p = 0.029). We found a higher probability of disease reactivation in males and in patients with over three active lesions at baseline. Higher EDSS scores at baseline and longer disease duration predicted the switch to other treatments after alemtuzumab. Discussion and conclusions: Our real-world study supports data from clinical trials in which lymphocyte subsets were not useful for predicting disease activity or autoimmune disease during treatment. The early use of an induction therapy such as alemtuzumab in patients with a lower EDSS score and short history of disease could mitigate the risk of treatment failure.
2023
Background and objectives: alemtuzumab is a monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody acting on B and T cells in highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). We analyzed changes in lymphocyte subsets after alemtuzumab administration in relation to disease activity and autoimmune adverse events. Methods: lymphocyte subset counts were assessed longitudinally using linear mixed models. Subset counts at baseline and during follow-up were correlated with relapse rate, adverse events, or magnetic resonance (MRI) activity. Results: we recruited 150 patients followed for a median of 2.7 years (IQR: 1.9-3.7). Total lymphocytes, CD4, CD8, and CD20 significantly decreased in all patients over 2 years (p &lt; 0.001). Previous treatment with fingolimod increased the risk of disease activity and adverse events (p = 0.029). We found a higher probability of disease reactivation in males and in patients with over three active lesions at baseline. Higher EDSS scores at baseline and longer disease duration predicted the switch to other treatments after alemtuzumab. Discussion and conclusions: Our real-world study supports data from clinical trials in which lymphocyte subsets were not useful for predicting disease activity or autoimmune disease during treatment. The early use of an induction therapy such as alemtuzumab in patients with a lower EDSS score and short history of disease could mitigate the risk of treatment failure.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1152535
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