BackgroundAcute brain injured (ABI) patients are at high risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, incidence, risk factors and effects on outcome of VAP are not completely elucidated in this population. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence of VAP in a cohort of ABI patients. The secondary objectives included the identification of risk factors for development of VAP, and the impact of VAP on clinical outcomes. Clinical outcomes were defined as intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS), duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and ICU mortality.MethodsPre-planned sub-analysis of the Extubation strategies in Neuro-Intensive care unit (ICU) patients and associations with Outcomes (ENIO) international multi-center prospective observational study. Patients with available data on VAP, who received at least 48 h of IMV and ICU-LOS >= 72 h were included.ResultsOut of 1512 patients included in the ENIO study, 1285 were eligible for this analysis. The prevalence of VAP was 39.5% (33.7 cases /1000 ventilator-days), with a high heterogeneity across countries and according to the type of brain injury. VAP was significantly more frequent in male patients, in those with smoke habits and when intraparenchymal probe (IP), external ventricular drain (EVD) or hypothermia (p < 0.001) were used. Independent risk factors for VAP occurrence were male gender, the use of IP, hypothermia, and the occurrence of tracheobronchitis during ICU stay. VAP was not an independent risk factor for ICU mortality (Hazard Ratio, HR = 0.71 95%CI 0.43-1.16, p = 0.168), but was independently associated with longer ICU stay (OR = 2.55 95%CI 2.01-3.23, p < 0.001).ConclusionsVAP is common in ABI patients. Male gender, IP and EVD insertion, tracheobronchitis, and the use of therapeutic hypothermia were significantly associated with VAP occurrence. VAP did not affect mortality but increased ICU-LOS.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia in neurocritically ill patients: insights from the ENIO international prospective observational study

Battaglini, Denise;Parodi, Luca;Orengo, Giovanni;Zona, Gianluigi;Uccelli, Antonio;Ferro, Giulio;Robba, Michela;Pelosi, Paolo;Robba, Chiara
2023-01-01

Abstract

BackgroundAcute brain injured (ABI) patients are at high risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, incidence, risk factors and effects on outcome of VAP are not completely elucidated in this population. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence of VAP in a cohort of ABI patients. The secondary objectives included the identification of risk factors for development of VAP, and the impact of VAP on clinical outcomes. Clinical outcomes were defined as intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS), duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and ICU mortality.MethodsPre-planned sub-analysis of the Extubation strategies in Neuro-Intensive care unit (ICU) patients and associations with Outcomes (ENIO) international multi-center prospective observational study. Patients with available data on VAP, who received at least 48 h of IMV and ICU-LOS >= 72 h were included.ResultsOut of 1512 patients included in the ENIO study, 1285 were eligible for this analysis. The prevalence of VAP was 39.5% (33.7 cases /1000 ventilator-days), with a high heterogeneity across countries and according to the type of brain injury. VAP was significantly more frequent in male patients, in those with smoke habits and when intraparenchymal probe (IP), external ventricular drain (EVD) or hypothermia (p < 0.001) were used. Independent risk factors for VAP occurrence were male gender, the use of IP, hypothermia, and the occurrence of tracheobronchitis during ICU stay. VAP was not an independent risk factor for ICU mortality (Hazard Ratio, HR = 0.71 95%CI 0.43-1.16, p = 0.168), but was independently associated with longer ICU stay (OR = 2.55 95%CI 2.01-3.23, p < 0.001).ConclusionsVAP is common in ABI patients. Male gender, IP and EVD insertion, tracheobronchitis, and the use of therapeutic hypothermia were significantly associated with VAP occurrence. VAP did not affect mortality but increased ICU-LOS.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1144256
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