Several contributions argue that insecure attachment accounts for the development of self-criticism. However, advances in the field are replete with theoretical issues that limit the integration of past results. This work estimates the strength of the associations between attachment and self-criticism and examines which theoretical and methodological features impact these estimations. A PRISMA systematic search was conducted. A three-level meta-analytic approach has been used to estimate effect sizes and the role of theoretical and methodological moderators. Low levels of secure attachment and high levels of insecure attachment were both positively associated with self-criticism. The type of insecure attachment significantly moderated this result, with attachment anxiety being more strongly associated with self-criticism than avoidant attachment. In some cases, the conceptualization and operationalization of both attachment and self-criticism were significant moderators. Self-criticism is likely to be rooted in insecure attachment, supporting most theoretical models and clinical indications. However, results regarding anxious attachment call for an additional theoretical effort to extend the current model. Furthermore, the bi-dimensional conceptualization of insecure attachment may lead to an overestimation of the association between avoidant attachment and self-criticism. The different nature of the emotional components involved may impact observations, suggesting the need to use multidimensional measures.

Self-criticism and attachment: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Guyonne Rogier;Stefania Muzi;Wanda Morganti;Cecilia Serena Pace
2023-01-01

Abstract

Several contributions argue that insecure attachment accounts for the development of self-criticism. However, advances in the field are replete with theoretical issues that limit the integration of past results. This work estimates the strength of the associations between attachment and self-criticism and examines which theoretical and methodological features impact these estimations. A PRISMA systematic search was conducted. A three-level meta-analytic approach has been used to estimate effect sizes and the role of theoretical and methodological moderators. Low levels of secure attachment and high levels of insecure attachment were both positively associated with self-criticism. The type of insecure attachment significantly moderated this result, with attachment anxiety being more strongly associated with self-criticism than avoidant attachment. In some cases, the conceptualization and operationalization of both attachment and self-criticism were significant moderators. Self-criticism is likely to be rooted in insecure attachment, supporting most theoretical models and clinical indications. However, results regarding anxious attachment call for an additional theoretical effort to extend the current model. Furthermore, the bi-dimensional conceptualization of insecure attachment may lead to an overestimation of the association between avoidant attachment and self-criticism. The different nature of the emotional components involved may impact observations, suggesting the need to use multidimensional measures.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1143537
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