Purpose: Diabetic striatopathy (DS) is a rare complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by hyperglycemia associated with chorea/ballism and characteristic reversible basal ganglia abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We propose a narrative review of the literature on this topic, currently unknown to most, and about which physicians should be aware. We intend to summarize, critically review, and take to mean the evidence on this disorder, describing its typical features. Methods: We searched Pubmed for English-language sources using the following keywords in the title and the abstract: diabetic striatopathy, hyperglycemic non-ketotic hemichorea/hemiballism, chorea/hemichorea associated with non-ketotic hyperglycemia, diabetic hemiballism/hemichorea, chorea, hyperglycemia, and basal ganglia syndrome. We collected scientific articles, including case reports, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses from the years 1975 to 2023. We eliminated duplicate, non-English language or non-related articles. Results: Older Asian women are more frequently affected. Suddenly or insidiously hemichorea/hemiballism, mainly in the limbs, and high blood glucose with elevated HbA1c in the absence of ketone bodies have been observed. Furthermore, CT striatal hyperdensity and T1-weighted MRI hyperintensity have been observed. DS is often a treatable disease following proper hydration and insulin administration. Histopathological findings are variable, and no comprehensive hypothesis explains the atypical cases reported. Conclusion: DS is a rare neurological manifestation of DM. If adequately treated, although treatment guidelines are lacking, the prognosis is good and life-threatening complications may occur occasionally. During chorea/hemiballism, we recommend blood glucose and HbA1c evaluation. Further studies are needed to understand the pathogenesis.

Diabetic striatopathy: an updated overview of current knowledge and future perspectives

Arecco A.;Ottaviani S.;Boschetti M.;Marinelli L.
2024-01-01

Abstract

Purpose: Diabetic striatopathy (DS) is a rare complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by hyperglycemia associated with chorea/ballism and characteristic reversible basal ganglia abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We propose a narrative review of the literature on this topic, currently unknown to most, and about which physicians should be aware. We intend to summarize, critically review, and take to mean the evidence on this disorder, describing its typical features. Methods: We searched Pubmed for English-language sources using the following keywords in the title and the abstract: diabetic striatopathy, hyperglycemic non-ketotic hemichorea/hemiballism, chorea/hemichorea associated with non-ketotic hyperglycemia, diabetic hemiballism/hemichorea, chorea, hyperglycemia, and basal ganglia syndrome. We collected scientific articles, including case reports, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses from the years 1975 to 2023. We eliminated duplicate, non-English language or non-related articles. Results: Older Asian women are more frequently affected. Suddenly or insidiously hemichorea/hemiballism, mainly in the limbs, and high blood glucose with elevated HbA1c in the absence of ketone bodies have been observed. Furthermore, CT striatal hyperdensity and T1-weighted MRI hyperintensity have been observed. DS is often a treatable disease following proper hydration and insulin administration. Histopathological findings are variable, and no comprehensive hypothesis explains the atypical cases reported. Conclusion: DS is a rare neurological manifestation of DM. If adequately treated, although treatment guidelines are lacking, the prognosis is good and life-threatening complications may occur occasionally. During chorea/hemiballism, we recommend blood glucose and HbA1c evaluation. Further studies are needed to understand the pathogenesis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1137136
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