Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) enzymes has been investigated as therapeutic strategy to treat memory problems in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although PDE4D inhibitors are effective in enhancing memory processes in rodents and humans, severe side effects may hamper their clinical use. PDE4D enzymes comprise different isoforms, which, when targeted specifically, can increase treatment efficacy and safety. The function of PDE4D isoforms in AD and in molecular memory processes per se has remained unresolved. Here, we report the upregulation of specific PDE4D isoforms in transgenic AD mice and hippocampal neurons exposed to amyloid-beta. Furthermore, by means of pharmacological inhibition and CRISPR-Cas9 knockdown, we show that the long-form PDE4D3, -D5, -D7, and -D9 isoforms regulate neuronal plasticity and convey resilience against amyloid-beta in vitro. These results indicate that isoform-specific, next to non-selective, PDE4D inhibition is efficient in promoting neuroplasticity in an AD context. Therapeutic effects of non-selective PDE4D inhibitors are likely achieved through actions on long isoforms. Future research should identify which long PDE4D isoforms should be specifically targeted in vivo to both improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects.

Ablation of specific long PDE4D isoforms increases neurite elongation and conveys protection against amyloid-β pathology

Ricciarelli R.;Brullo C.;Fedele E.;Bruno O.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) enzymes has been investigated as therapeutic strategy to treat memory problems in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although PDE4D inhibitors are effective in enhancing memory processes in rodents and humans, severe side effects may hamper their clinical use. PDE4D enzymes comprise different isoforms, which, when targeted specifically, can increase treatment efficacy and safety. The function of PDE4D isoforms in AD and in molecular memory processes per se has remained unresolved. Here, we report the upregulation of specific PDE4D isoforms in transgenic AD mice and hippocampal neurons exposed to amyloid-beta. Furthermore, by means of pharmacological inhibition and CRISPR-Cas9 knockdown, we show that the long-form PDE4D3, -D5, -D7, and -D9 isoforms regulate neuronal plasticity and convey resilience against amyloid-beta in vitro. These results indicate that isoform-specific, next to non-selective, PDE4D inhibition is efficient in promoting neuroplasticity in an AD context. Therapeutic effects of non-selective PDE4D inhibitors are likely achieved through actions on long isoforms. Future research should identify which long PDE4D isoforms should be specifically targeted in vivo to both improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1127035
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