Introduction: Severely immunocompromised patients are at risk for prolonged or relapsed COVID-19 leading to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of combination treatment in immunocompromised COVID-19 patients. Methods: We included all immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19 treated with combination therapy with two antivirals (remdesivir plus nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, or molnupiravir in case of renal failure) plus, if available, anti-spike monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), between February and October 2022. The main outcomes were virological response at day 14 (negative SARS-CoV-2 swab) and virological and clinical response (alive, asymptomatic, with negative SARS-CoV-2 swab) at day 30 and the last follow-up. Results: Overall, 22 patients (Omicron variant in 17/18) were included: 18 received full combination of two antivirals and Mabs and 4 received two antivirals only; in 20/22 (91%) two antivirals were nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus remdesivir. Nineteen (86%) patients had hematological malignancy, 15 (68%) had received anti-CD20 therapy. All were symptomatic; 8 (36%) required oxygen. Four patients received second course of combination treatment. Response rate at day 14, 30 and last follow-up was, respectively, 75% (15/20 evaluable), 73% (16/22) and 82% (18/22). Day 14 and 30 response rates were significantly higher when combination therapy included Mabs. Higher number of vaccine doses was associated with better final outcome. Two patients (9%) developed severe side effects: bradycardia leading to remdesivir discontinuation and myocardial infarction. Conclusion: Combination therapy including two antivirals (mainly remdesivir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) and Mabs was associated with high rate of virological and clinical response in immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19.

Twenty-two immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19 received combination therapy with 2 antivirals (remdesivir + nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, n = 20; remdesivir + molnupiravir, n = 2) together with anti-spike monoclonal antibodies in 18. The response rate at day 14, day 30, and last follow-up was 75%, 73%, and 82%, respectively.Background Severely immunocompromised patients are at risk for prolonged or relapsed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), leading to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of combination treatment in immunocompromised COVID-19 patients. Methods We included all immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19 treated with combination therapy with 2 antivirals (remdesivir plus nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, or molnupiravir in case of renal failure) plus, if available, anti-spike monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), between February and October 2022. The main outcomes were virological response at day 14 (negative Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] swab) and virological and clinical response (alive, asymptomatic, with negative SARS-CoV-2 swab) at day 30 and the last follow-up. Results Overall, 22 patients (Omicron variant in 17/18) were included: 18 received full combination of 2 antivirals and mAbs and 4 received 2 antivirals only; in 20 of 22 (91%) patients, 2 antivirals were nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus remdesivir. Nineteen (86%) patients had hematological malignancy, and 15 (68%) had received anti-CD20 therapy. All were symptomatic; 8 (36%) required oxygen. Four patients received a second course of combination treatment. The response rate at day 14, day 30, and last follow-up was 75% (15/20 evaluable), 73% (16/22), and 82% (18/22), respectively. Day 14 and 30 response rates were significantly higher when combination therapy included mAbs. Higher number of vaccine doses was associated with better final outcome. Two patients (9%) developed severe side effects (bradycardia leading to remdesivir discontinuation and myocardial infarction). Conclusions Combination therapy including 2 antivirals (mainly remdesivir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) and mAbs was associated with high rate of virological and clinical response in immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19.

Triple combination therapy with two antivirals and monoclonal antibodies for persistent or relapsed SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients

Mikulska, Malgorzata;Sepulcri, Chiara;Dentone, Chiara;Magne, Federica;Balletto, Elisa;Baldi, Federico;Labate, Laura;Russo, Chiara;Mirabella, Michele;Magnasco, Laura;Ghiggi, Chiara;Giacobbe, Daniele Roberto;Vena, Antonio;Beltramini, Sabrina;Bruzzone, Bianca;Lemoli, Roberto M;Angelucci, Emanuele;Bassetti, Matteo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Twenty-two immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19 received combination therapy with 2 antivirals (remdesivir + nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, n = 20; remdesivir + molnupiravir, n = 2) together with anti-spike monoclonal antibodies in 18. The response rate at day 14, day 30, and last follow-up was 75%, 73%, and 82%, respectively.Background Severely immunocompromised patients are at risk for prolonged or relapsed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), leading to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of combination treatment in immunocompromised COVID-19 patients. Methods We included all immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19 treated with combination therapy with 2 antivirals (remdesivir plus nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, or molnupiravir in case of renal failure) plus, if available, anti-spike monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), between February and October 2022. The main outcomes were virological response at day 14 (negative Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] swab) and virological and clinical response (alive, asymptomatic, with negative SARS-CoV-2 swab) at day 30 and the last follow-up. Results Overall, 22 patients (Omicron variant in 17/18) were included: 18 received full combination of 2 antivirals and mAbs and 4 received 2 antivirals only; in 20 of 22 (91%) patients, 2 antivirals were nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus remdesivir. Nineteen (86%) patients had hematological malignancy, and 15 (68%) had received anti-CD20 therapy. All were symptomatic; 8 (36%) required oxygen. Four patients received a second course of combination treatment. The response rate at day 14, day 30, and last follow-up was 75% (15/20 evaluable), 73% (16/22), and 82% (18/22), respectively. Day 14 and 30 response rates were significantly higher when combination therapy included mAbs. Higher number of vaccine doses was associated with better final outcome. Two patients (9%) developed severe side effects (bradycardia leading to remdesivir discontinuation and myocardial infarction). Conclusions Combination therapy including 2 antivirals (mainly remdesivir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) and mAbs was associated with high rate of virological and clinical response in immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19.
2023
Introduction: Severely immunocompromised patients are at risk for prolonged or relapsed COVID-19 leading to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of combination treatment in immunocompromised COVID-19 patients. Methods: We included all immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19 treated with combination therapy with two antivirals (remdesivir plus nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, or molnupiravir in case of renal failure) plus, if available, anti-spike monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), between February and October 2022. The main outcomes were virological response at day 14 (negative SARS-CoV-2 swab) and virological and clinical response (alive, asymptomatic, with negative SARS-CoV-2 swab) at day 30 and the last follow-up. Results: Overall, 22 patients (Omicron variant in 17/18) were included: 18 received full combination of two antivirals and Mabs and 4 received two antivirals only; in 20/22 (91%) two antivirals were nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus remdesivir. Nineteen (86%) patients had hematological malignancy, 15 (68%) had received anti-CD20 therapy. All were symptomatic; 8 (36%) required oxygen. Four patients received second course of combination treatment. Response rate at day 14, 30 and last follow-up was, respectively, 75% (15/20 evaluable), 73% (16/22) and 82% (18/22). Day 14 and 30 response rates were significantly higher when combination therapy included Mabs. Higher number of vaccine doses was associated with better final outcome. Two patients (9%) developed severe side effects: bradycardia leading to remdesivir discontinuation and myocardial infarction. Conclusion: Combination therapy including two antivirals (mainly remdesivir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) and Mabs was associated with high rate of virological and clinical response in immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1123556
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