The treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has changed dramatically with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Despite encouraging results, their efficacy remains limited to a subgroup of patients. Circulating immune checkpoints in soluble (s) form and associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent promising markers, especially in ICI-based therapeutic settings. We evaluated the prognostic role of PD-L1 and of two B7 family members (B7-H3, B7-H4), both soluble and EV-associated, in a cohort of advanced NSCLC patients treated with first- (n = 56) or second-line (n = 126) ICIs. In treatment-naïve patients, high baseline concentrations of sPD-L1 (>24.2 pg/mL) were linked to worse survival, whereas high levels of sB7-H3 (>0.5 ng/mL) and sB7-H4 (>63.9 pg/mL) were associated with better outcomes. EV characterization confirmed the presence of EVs positive for PD-L1 and B7-H3, while only a small portion of EVs expressed B7-H4. The comparison between biomarker levels at the baseline and in the first radiological assessment under ICI-based treatment showed a significant decrease in EV-PD-L1 and an increase in EV-B7H3 in patients in the disease response to ICIs. Our study shows that sPD-L1, sB7-H3 and sB7-H4 levels are emerging prognostic markers in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with ICIs and suggests potential EV involvement in the disease response to ICIs.

Prognostic Role of Soluble and Extracellular Vesicle-Associated PD-L1, B7-H3 and B7-H4 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Genova, Carlo;Tasso, Roberta;Tagliamento, Marco;Fedeli, Alessandro;Cortese, Katia;Gentili, Chiara;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has changed dramatically with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Despite encouraging results, their efficacy remains limited to a subgroup of patients. Circulating immune checkpoints in soluble (s) form and associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent promising markers, especially in ICI-based therapeutic settings. We evaluated the prognostic role of PD-L1 and of two B7 family members (B7-H3, B7-H4), both soluble and EV-associated, in a cohort of advanced NSCLC patients treated with first- (n = 56) or second-line (n = 126) ICIs. In treatment-naïve patients, high baseline concentrations of sPD-L1 (>24.2 pg/mL) were linked to worse survival, whereas high levels of sB7-H3 (>0.5 ng/mL) and sB7-H4 (>63.9 pg/mL) were associated with better outcomes. EV characterization confirmed the presence of EVs positive for PD-L1 and B7-H3, while only a small portion of EVs expressed B7-H4. The comparison between biomarker levels at the baseline and in the first radiological assessment under ICI-based treatment showed a significant decrease in EV-PD-L1 and an increase in EV-B7H3 in patients in the disease response to ICIs. Our study shows that sPD-L1, sB7-H3 and sB7-H4 levels are emerging prognostic markers in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with ICIs and suggests potential EV involvement in the disease response to ICIs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1111875
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