Simple Summary Different cells present in the tumor microenvironment can deeply influence both cancer spreading and the success of therapy in solid tumors, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In particular, tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) exert potent immunosuppressive effects leading to the impairment of anti-tumor surveillance and interfering with the function of therapeutic antibodies. Herein, we show that CRC-derived TAF can be turned by zoledronic acid (ZA), in soluble form or as antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), into efficient stimulators of anti-tumor lymphocytes. The ADC, made of the anti-EGFR cetuximab (Cet), used in CRC therapy, and ZA (Cet-ZA) can induce the proliferation of lymphocytes that become able to kill both tumor cells and TAF. The double result is a direct anti-cancer effect and the neutralization of the inhibitory activity exerted by its stroma. The major advantage of the Cet-ZA ADC formulation is the precise delivery of ZA to EGFR(+) cells, targeting TAF (potentially immunosuppressive), besides CRC cells. Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) exert immunosuppressive effects in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), impairing the recognition of tumor cells by effector lymphocytes, including V delta 2 T cells. Herein, we show that CRC-derived TAF can be turned by zoledronic acid (ZA), in soluble form or as antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), into efficient stimulators of V delta 2 T cells. CRC-TAF, obtained from patients, express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the butyrophilin family members BTN3A1/BTN2A1. These butyrophilins mediate the presentation of the phosphoantigens, accumulated in the cells due to ZA effect, to V delta 2 T cells. CRC-TAF exposed to soluble ZA acquired the ability to trigger the proliferation of V delta 2 T cells, in part represented by effector memory cells lacking CD45RA and CD27. In turn, expanded V delta 2 T cells exerted relevant cytotoxic activity towards CRC cells and CRC-TAF when primed with soluble ZA. Of note, also the ADC made of the anti-EGFR cetuximab (Cet) and ZA (Cet-ZA), that we recently described, induced the proliferation of anti-tumor V delta 2 T lymphocytes and their activation against CRC-TAF. These findings indicate that ZA can educate TAF to stimulate effector memory V delta 2 T cells; the Cet-ZA ADC formulation can lead to the precise delivery of ZA to EGFR(+) cells, with a double targeting of TAF and tumor cells.

Priming of Colorectal Tumor-Associated Fibroblasts with Zoledronic Acid Conjugated to the Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Antibody Cetuximab Elicits Anti-Tumor Vδ2 T Lymphocytes

Costa, Delfina;Campioli, Alessio;Tavella, Sara;Poggi, Alessandro
2023-01-01

Abstract

Simple Summary Different cells present in the tumor microenvironment can deeply influence both cancer spreading and the success of therapy in solid tumors, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In particular, tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) exert potent immunosuppressive effects leading to the impairment of anti-tumor surveillance and interfering with the function of therapeutic antibodies. Herein, we show that CRC-derived TAF can be turned by zoledronic acid (ZA), in soluble form or as antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), into efficient stimulators of anti-tumor lymphocytes. The ADC, made of the anti-EGFR cetuximab (Cet), used in CRC therapy, and ZA (Cet-ZA) can induce the proliferation of lymphocytes that become able to kill both tumor cells and TAF. The double result is a direct anti-cancer effect and the neutralization of the inhibitory activity exerted by its stroma. The major advantage of the Cet-ZA ADC formulation is the precise delivery of ZA to EGFR(+) cells, targeting TAF (potentially immunosuppressive), besides CRC cells. Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) exert immunosuppressive effects in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), impairing the recognition of tumor cells by effector lymphocytes, including V delta 2 T cells. Herein, we show that CRC-derived TAF can be turned by zoledronic acid (ZA), in soluble form or as antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), into efficient stimulators of V delta 2 T cells. CRC-TAF, obtained from patients, express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the butyrophilin family members BTN3A1/BTN2A1. These butyrophilins mediate the presentation of the phosphoantigens, accumulated in the cells due to ZA effect, to V delta 2 T cells. CRC-TAF exposed to soluble ZA acquired the ability to trigger the proliferation of V delta 2 T cells, in part represented by effector memory cells lacking CD45RA and CD27. In turn, expanded V delta 2 T cells exerted relevant cytotoxic activity towards CRC cells and CRC-TAF when primed with soluble ZA. Of note, also the ADC made of the anti-EGFR cetuximab (Cet) and ZA (Cet-ZA), that we recently described, induced the proliferation of anti-tumor V delta 2 T lymphocytes and their activation against CRC-TAF. These findings indicate that ZA can educate TAF to stimulate effector memory V delta 2 T cells; the Cet-ZA ADC formulation can lead to the precise delivery of ZA to EGFR(+) cells, with a double targeting of TAF and tumor cells.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1109318
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