The total concentration of three toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb) and five oligoelements (Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni and Se) has been determined using an original and completely validated ICP-MS method. This was applied to rice grains from 26 different genotypes cultivated in the same soil and irrigated with the same water in three different ways: by the traditional continuous flooding (CF) and by two intermittent methods, the sprinkler irrigation (SP) and the periodical saturation of the soil (SA). The adoption of SP hugely minimizes the average amounts of almost all elements in kernels (−98% for As, −90% for Se and Mn, −60% for Mo, −50% for Cd and Pb), with the only exception of Ni, whose concentration increases the average amount found in the CF rice by 7.5 times. Also SA irrigation is able to reduce the amounts of As, Mo and Pb in kernels but it significantly increases the amounts of Mn, Ni and – mainly - Cd. Also the nature of the genotype determined a wide variability of data within each irrigation method. Genotypes belonging to Indica subspecies are the best bioaccumulators of elements in both CF and SP methods and, never, the worst bioaccumulators for any element/irrigation method combination. In the principal component analysis, PC1 can differentiate samples irrigated by SP by those irrigated by CF and SA, whereas PC2 provides differentiation of CF samples by SA samples. When looking at the loading plot Ni is negatively correlated to the majority of the other elements, except Cu and Cd having negative loadings on PC2. These results allow to envisage that a proper combination of the irrigation method and the nature of rice genotype might be a very valuable tool in order to successfully achieve specific objectives of food safety or the attainment of functional properties.

Effect of the irrigation method and genotype on the bioaccumulation of toxic and trace elements in rice

Leardi R.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

The total concentration of three toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb) and five oligoelements (Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni and Se) has been determined using an original and completely validated ICP-MS method. This was applied to rice grains from 26 different genotypes cultivated in the same soil and irrigated with the same water in three different ways: by the traditional continuous flooding (CF) and by two intermittent methods, the sprinkler irrigation (SP) and the periodical saturation of the soil (SA). The adoption of SP hugely minimizes the average amounts of almost all elements in kernels (−98% for As, −90% for Se and Mn, −60% for Mo, −50% for Cd and Pb), with the only exception of Ni, whose concentration increases the average amount found in the CF rice by 7.5 times. Also SA irrigation is able to reduce the amounts of As, Mo and Pb in kernels but it significantly increases the amounts of Mn, Ni and – mainly - Cd. Also the nature of the genotype determined a wide variability of data within each irrigation method. Genotypes belonging to Indica subspecies are the best bioaccumulators of elements in both CF and SP methods and, never, the worst bioaccumulators for any element/irrigation method combination. In the principal component analysis, PC1 can differentiate samples irrigated by SP by those irrigated by CF and SA, whereas PC2 provides differentiation of CF samples by SA samples. When looking at the loading plot Ni is negatively correlated to the majority of the other elements, except Cu and Cd having negative loadings on PC2. These results allow to envisage that a proper combination of the irrigation method and the nature of rice genotype might be a very valuable tool in order to successfully achieve specific objectives of food safety or the attainment of functional properties.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1104669
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