Synaptopathies are a class of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by modification in genes coding for synaptic proteins. These proteins oversee the process of neurotransmission, mainly controlling the fusion and recycling of synaptic vesicles at the presynaptic terminal, the expression and localization of receptors at the postsynapse and the coupling between the pre-and the postsynaptic compartments. Murine models, with homozygous or het-erozygous deletion for several synaptic genes or knock-in for specific pathogenic mutations, have been devel-oped. They have proved to be extremely informative for understanding synaptic physiology, as well as for clarifying the patho-mechanisms leading to developmental delay, epilepsy and motor, cognitive and social im-pairments that are the most common clinical manifestations of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the onset of these disorders emerges during infancy and adolescence while the behavioral phenotyping is often conducted in adult mice, missing important information about the impact of synaptic development and matu-ration on the manifestation of the behavioral phenotype. Here, we review the main achievements obtained by behavioral testing in murine models of synaptopathies and propose a battery of behavioral tests to improve classification, diagnosis and efficacy of potential therapeutic treatments. Our aim is to underlie the importance of studying behavioral development and better focusing on disease onset and phenotypes.

Synaptic genes and neurodevelopmental disorders: From molecular mechanisms to developmental strategies of behavioral testing

Michetti, Caterina;Falace, Antonio;Benfenati, Fabio;Fassio, Anna
2022-01-01

Abstract

Synaptopathies are a class of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by modification in genes coding for synaptic proteins. These proteins oversee the process of neurotransmission, mainly controlling the fusion and recycling of synaptic vesicles at the presynaptic terminal, the expression and localization of receptors at the postsynapse and the coupling between the pre-and the postsynaptic compartments. Murine models, with homozygous or het-erozygous deletion for several synaptic genes or knock-in for specific pathogenic mutations, have been devel-oped. They have proved to be extremely informative for understanding synaptic physiology, as well as for clarifying the patho-mechanisms leading to developmental delay, epilepsy and motor, cognitive and social im-pairments that are the most common clinical manifestations of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the onset of these disorders emerges during infancy and adolescence while the behavioral phenotyping is often conducted in adult mice, missing important information about the impact of synaptic development and matu-ration on the manifestation of the behavioral phenotype. Here, we review the main achievements obtained by behavioral testing in murine models of synaptopathies and propose a battery of behavioral tests to improve classification, diagnosis and efficacy of potential therapeutic treatments. Our aim is to underlie the importance of studying behavioral development and better focusing on disease onset and phenotypes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1098392
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