ADP-ribosyl cyclases (ADPRCs) catalyze the synthesis of the Ca2+-active second messengers Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and ADP-ribose (ADPR) from NAD(+) as well as nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP(+)) from NADP(+). The best characterized ADPRC in mammals is CD38, a single-pass transmembrane protein with two opposite membrane orientations. The first identified form, type II CD38, is a glycosylated ectoenzyme, while type III CD38 has its active site in the cytosol. The ectoenzymatic nature of type II CD38 raised long ago the question of a topological paradox concerning the access of the intracellular NAD(+) substrate to the extracellular active site and of extracellular cADPR product to its intracellular receptors, ryanodine (RyR) channels. Two different transporters, equilibrative connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels for NAD(+) and concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) for cADPR, proved to mediate cell-autonomous trafficking of both nucleotides. Here, we discussed how type II CD38, Cx43 and CNTs also play a role in mediating several paracrine processes where an ADPRC(+) cell supplies a neighboring CNT-and RyR-expressing cell with cADPR. Recently, type II CD38 was shown to start an ectoenzymatic sequence of reactions from NAD(+)/ADPR to the strong immunosuppressant adenosine; this paracrine effect represents a major mechanism of acquired resistance of several tumors to immune checkpoint therapy.

Paracrine ADP Ribosyl Cyclase-Mediated Regulation of Biological Processes

Astigiano, Cecilia;Benzi, Andrea;Laugieri, Maria Elena;Piacente, Francesco;Sturla, Laura;Guida, Lucrezia;Bruzzone, Santina;De Flora, Antonio
2022-01-01

Abstract

ADP-ribosyl cyclases (ADPRCs) catalyze the synthesis of the Ca2+-active second messengers Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and ADP-ribose (ADPR) from NAD(+) as well as nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP(+)) from NADP(+). The best characterized ADPRC in mammals is CD38, a single-pass transmembrane protein with two opposite membrane orientations. The first identified form, type II CD38, is a glycosylated ectoenzyme, while type III CD38 has its active site in the cytosol. The ectoenzymatic nature of type II CD38 raised long ago the question of a topological paradox concerning the access of the intracellular NAD(+) substrate to the extracellular active site and of extracellular cADPR product to its intracellular receptors, ryanodine (RyR) channels. Two different transporters, equilibrative connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels for NAD(+) and concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs) for cADPR, proved to mediate cell-autonomous trafficking of both nucleotides. Here, we discussed how type II CD38, Cx43 and CNTs also play a role in mediating several paracrine processes where an ADPRC(+) cell supplies a neighboring CNT-and RyR-expressing cell with cADPR. Recently, type II CD38 was shown to start an ectoenzymatic sequence of reactions from NAD(+)/ADPR to the strong immunosuppressant adenosine; this paracrine effect represents a major mechanism of acquired resistance of several tumors to immune checkpoint therapy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1098376
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